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tMumc (^Magazine 

April 1936 Price 25 Cents 



• Charles Beach Hawley i 

early were manifest. Mr. Hawley studied 
voice under George James Webb and 
others, and composition under Dudley 
Buck, Mosenthal and Rutenber. He held 
important church positions in New^York^ 

area test triumph™we?e as the composer of 

excellent songs and -*■-— —" " 

which regularly are 

pro gram i 

Wind A-Wooing (d-F).. 

ditto <b-D) .. 

Woodland Love Song (d-a) 

Your^Lips Have Said You Love Me (c-E).. 


the Child 

‘-■''"ditto “ (CD) 

The Message of Angels (d a) 
ditto (b-F). . 

° (b-'l) 

or a Closer Walk with God jP- 

Oh, For 
Redeeming Love (E-g) 

Send Out Thy Light (Ex) 
Still. Still with Thee (d-g) 
That Sweet Story of Old (E-g) 



»- m o. 

>-flat-D ; LOW VOICE—Range E-flatg 

if.. ■ 1 ■ ~ 

rs ^ 




- .j j 

j j 



Dreams^ of the Summer Night 



Know N° t Why (b-g) .. 

Lo^j For You (d-g). 

ditto la D) 

Love You So (E a) . . 

ditto (d-g) 

Oidy Can Love Thee (E-g). 

Wai!‘For Thee (d-g). 

ditto (b-F) 

: You Have a Sweetheart (E-a).. 

’ {til: . <C; :: 

i the Deeps o* the D. 

Jy S ring Id'?)::::::::::::::::: 

Life's d Springtime ,F-a) . 

Love’s Entreaty (F-g). 

Loveland I (E-g). 

Lovedight of Your Eyes (E-a 

Love’s Envy (E a). 

ditto (c-F). 

Lovers Enchantment (F-g) 

Love’s Goal (F-g). 

ditto (d-E). 

Life (F-g). 

M0l l S , 0 E, ' S lb-1). 

My Heart’s A-Maying ( 
My Thought of You (d- 

f ' hlrl is ^ , 


P*n. fo$ 

Vi ,J | J 1 

It" rl 


She Wears a Rose in Her Hair (d-g) 

" 4 ) 

Sleep! Sleep! (E*F).... 
Song of°Life 


Cantata for Mixed Voices 

K. frequently presented Christmas cantata that ap- 
d choirs with proficient soloists. 

’. 45 n 

t. Price, 75c. 


_ - Soul (Mixed) 

He Ti Not Hem. but Is Risen (Mixed) 

Holy Night (Mixed) .1 

Listen to the Wondrous Story (Mixed) .K 

The Lord Is My Shepherd (Mixed) 1 

O Loving Saviour (Mixed) 1 

See Amid the Winter s Snow (Carol in 

Unison) i 

The Sinle Is O et (Mixed) -‘ 

Ah! Tis a Dream (Treble—4 Part) - - • 

As Pants the Hart (Treble—2 Pan) -1 

Dance of the Fairies (Treble—2 Part) - 
In the Detps o' the Daisies (Treble—J Part) -I 

The lonquii Maid (Treble—4 Part).j 

Morning (Treble—5 Part) * 

Noon and Night (Treble—) Pan) > 

One Morning. Oh. So Early (Treble-) Pan) -1 
The Sweetest Flower That Slows (Treble- 
4 Part) j 

The'wmd^a'nd'The SiTnblim (Treble -2 Put) .1 
Your Lips Said You Lore Me (Treble— 

) Part) 

The Sweetest Flower That Blows (Men)- ■ 

Arise My Love (Men) 

Ashes of Roses (Men) 

Good Things (Men) 

I Come to Watch O’er 

Katy Did (Men). 

Molly's Eyes (Men) _ 

Regret (Men) __— .— - 

Song of the Frost King (Meo) 

A Song of Winter (Men) 

Your Lips Have Said You Love Me (Men) 
r '- J Lore (Franx) (Men) 

Thee (f ’ 

Thee (Men) 

Mote Love to 

e (Sullivan) (Men) 

The JohnChurch Company, 

THEODORE PRESSER CO., Selling Agent, , 



X $£ 58 ? W,LL AK* CAID At TJr° 

All instructors are members of the Philadelphia Orchestra 



Robert McGinnis 

First Clarinet 

Curtis Institute of Music 
Department of Orchestra 




Instructor in Conducting 



The Curtis Institute of Music gives individual instruction to students of Wood¬ 
wind, Brass and Percussion, as well as String Instruments. Students in the 
Orchestra Department receive a general musical education in addition to 
orchestra technique and routine. 

Over one hundred graduates, who are now members of major symphony 
orchestras throughout the United States, received their training at The 
Curtis Institute of Music. 

Application blanks for auditions may be obtained by applying to the Institute. 

DR. JOSEF HOFMANN, Director and Dean 


Philadelphia Rittenhouse Square Pennsylvania 





VIOLINS: Thompson, 1788 & 1783- Unit 
essier, 1800; others. Bows: Dodd, Prell an,) 
others. All fully guaranteed. R. w. p er 
rler, Elizabethtown, N. V. er 

WANTED: Etude, December 1908 com¬ 
plete with cover in good condition. Ofi,.. 
80 cents postpaid. JCD c/o Etude. 

COLLECTION rare Mittenwald and Italian 
Violins, Wonderful toned Instruments on 
approval. Save half. ElmerGommels,Man- 
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Music of all Publishers—Piano Teaching Material A Specialty! 

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with duets— 
The first lesson? 

Do you want 
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To Order Piano Teaching Material “ 
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will be of infinite service to you 
in the selection of music collections. One of 
the most attractive catalogs ever issued of 
standard music for piano, voice, violin, organ 
and other instruments. Every book illus¬ 
trated, and described, together with its com¬ 
plete contents. If you are a teacher, student 
or lover of music, be sure to write us to-day 
—a postcard brings it. (Not sent to Canada 
or European countries.) 


For Sale at all Miuic Stores countries) or 

D. APPLETON-CENTURY CO. 35 W. 32d St., New York 

APRIL, 1936 


Appropriate Music for 
Coming Program Needs 

il8| M other’s Day 

n$f\ (MAY I0TH) 


Cal. No.- Title and Composer Range Price 

25176 Candle Light. .Chas. Wakefield 

Cadman .d-g....$0.50 

26132 Candle Light..Chas. Wakefield 

Cadman.b flat-E flat.50 

An exquisite poem dry Lee^Shippey^in a musical 

been ^adopted by the American Parent-Teacher 
Associations for Mother's Day Programs. 

26002 Mother's Day. .Frank H. Grey.c-E.40 

19695 Mother Calling!. .Alfred Hall... . E flat-g.40 

17956 Mother. .Stanley F. Widener.c-F.40 

A song with an excellent text. 

24022 Old Fashioned Mother Of Mine 

Richard Kountz.d-E flat.60 

24021 Old Fashioned Mother Of Mine 

! «2oo U S^£h.;bis,.; h ' tF "" 

Daniel Protheroe.c sharp-D.50 

18680 Little Mother O' Mine 

Herbert Ward.E flat-E flat.50 

6884 Mother O' Mine..B. Remick.d-E.35 

24043 My Mother's Song. .John Openshaw. .d-g.60 

19404 Never Forget Your Dear Mother and Her Prayer 

1,420 S 

QU * 

21232 Candle Light 
20010 Rock Me to Sle 

35m OJMotheV o?My Heart. ,C. Davis.. ( 

M r^/gccfa, w %i*i 


• These selected lists will prove helpful in choosing 
appropriate and interesting material for the many 
special programs to be arranged for high schools, 
colleges, clubs, societies, church organizations, etc. 
The piano numbers may be used with timely advan¬ 
tage for pupil-recitals or study needs. Music to 
meet any described requirements cheerfully sent 
for examination. Our stock includes 

: of all 

May Day 

Day (™) 


True and Loyal (Male—Secular).... Murray ..$0.06 
We Strew Their Graves With Flowers 

(Male—Secular) .Murray.. .05 

35154 Comrades' Song of Hope (Mixed— 

Sacred) .Adam ... .18 

81 Lay Him Low (Mixed—Secular)-Smith ... .10 

Memorial Day (Mixed—Secular) ... Nevin ... .10 


22573 Abraham Lincoln.Blake.S r . 2>/ 2 .30 

12131 Battle Cry of Freedom.Renk .Gr. 3.. .25 

11910 Decoration Day.Spaulding .Gr. 2.. .25 

2534 Our Glorious Union Forever Howard ..Gr.3.. .35 

18425 Our Invincible Union...... Rolfe.Gr. 5.. .50 

11872 Taps. Military March.Engelmann Gr.3.. .35 


Cat. No. Title Compt 

20230 In May (Unison).Ira B. Wilson.$0.06 

10234 Blossom Time (2 Pt.).J. W. Lerman.15 

“ (2 Pt.)-F. Berger.12 

.Ira B. Wilson.08 

S'«::::8s£s££: :S 

Pt.).R. R. 

I Pt.).H.E. 

10866 (O) That We Two Were May 

10351 May Nig^t (4 Pt!—Treble)!! Franz Abt* 6 !!! ! 

15715 Glad May Morning, A (4 Pt. 

June £, 


30318 Nuptial Song—Davis. .... 

30173 For You, Dear Heart—Speaks (Two Keys) T in 

30172 All ForYou-d'Hardelot (Two Keys) . ^ 

12268 O Perfect Love-Burleigh (Two Keys). 

17012 You Came to Me With Love-Braine.J 

18489 I Love You Best—Brown. .'.'.'!!.'! ^i!'. ‘35 


30i! ‘ “ilia" Ru,fc w ’ dd '”’ 

24991 A Merry Wedding Tune—Saa!. 

bridal Choruss (Lohengrin)—Wagner.'.!'.!.'!.40 

Jlo?n ^ edd ' n 9 March—Mendelssohn ... .I? 

24970 Love Song—Drdla-Mansfield . 

Flag Day 


Cat. No. Title Composer 

15541 The Flag Is Passing By (Mixed). Barrett....: 

219 O Glorious Emblem (Mixed) . O'Neill - 

224 Hail to the Flag (Mixed). Jeffery.... 

35260 Stars and Stripes Forever (Mixed). .Sousa. 

35234 Stars and Stripes Forever (S.A.B.) . .Sousa. 

35232 Stars and Stripes Forever (Unison) . .Sousa . 

10732 Our Country's Flag (Unison).Wolcott... 

35233 Stars and Stripes Forever (2 Pt. 

School Chorus) . Sousa . 

C2I76 Flag Song (Fling Out Her Glorious 

Folds) (Male) .Hammond . 

35119 Stars and Stripes Forever (Male).. .Sousa . 

Our Flag (Cantata for School).Root . 

Our Colors (Short Cantata for Men's 

Voices).Spross .... 


Betsy Ross. Spaulding .1 

Flag Goes By. Grey .( 

Hats Off to the Flag .Spaulding .( 

'Neath Old Glory. Ralph . . . < 

'Neath the American Flag ... Kern . ..( 

Ours Is a Grand Old Flag. ..Spaulding .( 

1 Salute to the Colors .Anthony ..( 

3 Stand by the Flag .Stults.( 

I Stars and Stripes Forever. .. .Souse . ...Gr, 4. 

I 1896 

' I'll .40 
• 3 . .60 
•I.. 25 
'• 2'/j .40 

("h ) Day 

21002 Oh, Hail Us, Ye Free. From Erne- 

Arr. Felton ( Male) .. Verdi. $0.12 

35227 Hail Brave Washington (Mixed). Powers. 06 

21153 Lexington Ode.. (Unison).. Schubert-Felton.... .M 
21195 Ode to America. . (Mixed) . .Costa-Davis. .15 

(8 Petri- 

. . :S$5 


yjtJ Yankee D °oJle) .Spaulding .Gr.2.. .25 

n il ? e . rt x Be i' March ■ ■ • Sousa '! :tl: 31/2 S 


° 8y .Crammond Gr.2.. 

25082 To the Front. Military /March. Clark.Gr. 3.. 

Theodore • 

• P resser Co. 

Music Publishers. Dealers and Importer, 
rj. a '* ® rder Service on Everything in Music 
World's Largest Stock Mu sic of All Publishers 

*712 Chestnut St., Phila., Pa. 


APRIL, 1936 





years with Metropolitan Opera, New York, in t 
Goldendays of Toscanini, Caruso, Farrar, etc. 

Beginners or Professionals 
Chairman Opera Committee, Hollywood Bowl 
■airman Opera Committee, Festival of Allied Ai 
1962 N. Highland Ave._ Hollywood. California 

Private Teachers 



Distinguished Baritone and Teacher of Singers, 
Pupils Prepared for Radio, 

Oratorio Concert and Movie Engagements. 
1541 Westwood Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. 


Concert Violin—Teachei^Chamber Music 
331 N. Beverly Glen Boul. Los Angeles, Calif. 

Phone West Los Angeles—322-37 


Noted vocal authority and coach of famous singers 
Conductor of Chicago Opera & European Companies 
" years director of vocal and opera departments 
Chicago Musical College 
Is now appearing in films, radio, opera, concerts 
located at 6054 Yucca Hollywood, Calif. 

12 Ye 


Principal Tenor with Manhattan, 
Metropolitan and Chicago Operas . 
eaching Opera, Concerts, Radio, Movies 
Repertoire in French, Italian, German 
5873 Franklin Ave., Hollywood, Calif. 
Phone Hempsted 9949 



■h Larchmont Los Angeles, Calif. 

ladstone 9988 


Science of Singing 
German Lieder, Oratorio, 

Movie Pictures, Radio 
amino Rd. Beverly Hills, Cal 

Phone Oxford 3235 


Vocal Teacher and Coach 

Radio-Concert, Opera, Moving Pictures 
and Popular Repertoire 


Teacher of stars of screen, 

hStage,^ 0 , concert, opem odi c, 


Masterclasses—June, July, August 1936 
Teaching Methods, Materials and 
Interpretation. Lisit Exponent. 

5533 Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 



Teacher of Voice 
Address Care of Musical Courier 
Roosevelt Hotel — Hollywood, Calif. 


Concert Pianist and Teacher 

10th Summer Session—Los Angeles 
July and August—1936 

2223 S. Cochran Ave. Los Angeles, Ce 

Phone—Oregon 4940 



First Teacher of 

Josephine Antoine of Metropolitan Opera 

6655 De Longpre Ave., Hollywood. Calif. 

SL. 7523 


Concert Pianist—Artist Teacher 
229 So. Harvard Blvd. Los Angeles, C, 

FE. 2597 


Voice teacher of famous singers 
From rudiments to nrofessional anoaosman 

703 So. \ 

cepted. Special teacl 

s, Cal. 


Voice Teacher of Many Young Artists 
Now Before the Public 

Folder- on Request 

2 S. Crenshaw Blvd. Los Angeles, Calif. 

Private Teachers 



Pianoforte — Repertory— Appreciation 
THE WYOMING, 853 7th AVE., 


(Frank) (Ernesto) 



Frank LaForge teacher of Lawrence Tibbett since Oct. 


Tel. Trafalgar 7-8993 


etropolitan Opera He 


Representative TOBIAS MATTHAY 
• Private-lessons, class-lessons in Fundamentals 
Available as Lecture-Recitalist 


Teacher of Piano 

Specializing in Methods of Isidor^Philipp^ 
playing at Pans Conservatoire 
1700 West Tioga Street Philadelphia, Pa. 

Phone: Radcliff 0265 


Vocal Teacher 
200 W. 57th St., New 


Concert Pianist—Artist-Teacher 

Recommended by 


The Willis Music Co. 
is happy to announce 
the long awaited 
publication ^ 

The Covered Wagon 
A Miniature Suite 
for Piano Solo 

Five new John Thompson pieces 
musically descriptive of early 
American days. For Grades I 
and II. Explanatory stories, 
attractively illustrated.60 

John Thompson 

f From his many years of first¬ 
hand experience as concert 
pianist, composer and teacher, 
||john Thompson has de¬ 
ll veloped certain definite and 
' original teaching ideas. His 
^present successful books and 
it pieces will give you an idea as 
.aJS&VUo what to expect in these 
tfPc»NEW Thompson offerings. 
C& __ John Thompson is now on a 
1 nation-wide lecture tour. Pi¬ 
ano Teachers are welcome to 
these lectures without charge. 
Watch for him in your terri¬ 

‘Something New 


An easily-grasped, correct and complete founi 
study, enabling the pupil to think and feel mus 
Patterns, Rhythmical Patterns, Harmony Patt 
Patterns have been exemplified in simple and r 
in the FIVE FINGER POSITION. Every page t 
thing new in either phrasing, key signature, wr 
attack, etc. Price, $1.00. 



Swaying Silver Birches— Leslie .30 

Forest Dawn— Thompson. 30 

Moccasin Dance— Long .30 

Marche Slav (Tschaikowsky)— 


Lullaby (Brahms)—Thompson.. .30 
Procession of the Seven Dwarfs 


In the Barnyard— Waldo. 35 

Hoe Cake Shuffle —Leslie. 30 

The Dutch Twins —Ward. 35 

Cobbler, Cobbler— Rebe. 30 

March of the Spooks— Haines. .30 

The Bogey Man —Long. 30 

With Lesson Analysis 


The Swan on the Moohlit Lake 


Hiawatha’s Lullaby —Ward.. . 

Captain Kidd— Waldo. 

Drowsy Moon —Long. 

The Banjo Picker— Wright_ 

The Brownies Carnival— 


On a Summer Sea —Ketterer.. 


March of the Champions— 


Tango Carioca —Thompson.... 
By a Roadside Fire— Rodgers.. 


The Willis Music Co. 

You may send detailed John Thompson Modern Piano Course 
information to: 



APRIL, 1936 


Published Monthly 

1712 Chestnut Street 


Music Magazine 

Vol. LIV No. 4 • APRIL, 1936 

The World of Music 


Associate Editor 

Interesting and Important Items Gleaned in a Constant Watch on 
Happenings and Activities Pertaining to Things Musical Everywhere 


ALL FINLAND joined which Francis Scott Key made of The Star n0U nced to run from July 25th to August ,,, 

the festivities of the Spangled. Banner, are known to be in exist- 31st. Toscanini will conduct “Fideho, “Fal- . , . 7 

.nt’eth ■ WhH.v A..,- ence Col Louis 'j Kolb of p hiladelphia is stafr> and -Die Meistersinger”; Bruno Wal- cont . s of the former 
reported to have recently paid $5,500 for ter will lead for “Don Giovanni." “Tristan ' . ' • 

one of these. and Isolde,” “Orpheus” and “Der Corre- «> 23rd -. » London, at 

gidor” (by Wolf); and Weingartner will lnc 

seventieth birthday 
j AN versary of Jan Sibelius. 

Sibelius The zenith was achieved 

in a gala concert at the 
Helsingfors Exposition, with an orchestra of 
one hundred musicians, a chorus of five 
hundred voices, and an audience of seven 
thousand The Minister of Fine Arts deliv- Rachmaninoff with E 
ered to Sibehus an address in the name of i n „ 
the President of the Republic; and M. Kivi- 
maki, Minister-President, presented to the 

THE CONCERTS-LAMOUREUX offered conduct “Cosi Fan Tutte” and “The Mar- 
i Paris, on January 12th, Nicolas Orloff as riage of Figaro.” These three masters, and 
the “Second Piano Concerto” of Pierre Monteux, will lead orchestral con- 
Bigot conduct- certs; and there will be the usual miscellane¬ 
ous programs. 

of sixty-t 

professional debut was made in a perform¬ 
ance of Sullivan's “Golden Legend," at Al¬ 
bert Hall, with Emma Albani, Edward 
Lloyd and Sir Charles Sant try completing a 
notable quartet. She sang, by command, be¬ 
fore Queen Victoria. King Edward VII and 
A SUITE from “The Maypole Lovers” by King George V. and then in 1«31 wind 
first hearing when from a brilliant career of thirty-one years. 

master, for the Finnish people.T crown’of thf Co£ had 

of the American composers series of the on the program for January 9th of the Chi- -i-— r 

_ *• Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra, on Janu- ca S° Symphony Orchestra under the baton SARDANE. a composition for thirtv-two 

THE GUITAR ORCHESTRA of Madrid ary 16th, in the Eastman Theater, with Dr. of Dr. Frederick Stock. violoncellos, by Pablo Casals, has Ix-cn sk- 

..IT P^. ar t_ H , ans , on , Quoting. Dr. Kelley’s THE CENTENARY of the birth of Camille cesslully rece ived in both Paris and Madrid. 

Saint-Saens, which occurred on September pr , evununw no 

9, 1835, was celebrated in London, at the ^JSL,\°^J LAND S ,\ MPH J 0N ' , 0R - 
Promenade Concert of September 3, bv a CHESTRA (Oregon) celebrated on Janu- 
program of the master’s works, including arv , 12lh 1(5 silver jubilee; when supporters 
the “Symphony in C Minor” for orchestra, ?' the organization, .luring the last twenty- 
organ and piano, and the “Concerto in C “ vc - vcars> R“*hered in the Auditorium and 
.. listened to a repetition of the program ' ' 

has triumphed in a concert 

Theater, in a program_ devoted to the works “New England Symphony”" was the chief 
“ i the program, which included the 

of Breton, Granados, Chapi, Albeniz, Serrano work c 


eiectea president oi tne national- Institute r „ n) -| v , . - . p*“uu, aim 

of Arts and Letters, to succeed Governor ^ P Minor for piano and orchestra. . 

Wilbur L Cross of Connecticut included a Hymn to Apollo by Gounod; On ■«-». at its first concert, on Novrmbcr 12, 1911. 

c ross Connecticu t. lhe Sea by Dudley Buck; and Stars of the DIMITRI MITROPOULOS, director of in the old Marquan Grand Theater, of which 

THE GOVFNT T ARnFV iL, T Summer Night by Hatton. Dr. W. E. orchestral studies in the Conservatory of Dvorak's “New World Symphony "-then 
ternational Ooera wiH^nfr^nn Anril ^mi Thomas, a native composer, was represented Athens, Greece, was guest conductor of the com|,arativcly m u—was the chief work 
S on April 27th, by two movements from a string quartet Boston Symphony Orchestra for two pairs offered. 

aSj'SS &£* —-“* * - 

to, R ™pL?™ G . E p, R ,.”.«T1?bi« d “ ctor01 S’TS; 

Flagstad, Elizabeth Rethberg, Rudolf Bock- of “Joan of Arc,” with the libretto by Paul THE MUNICIPAL COUNCIL of the city * C ' trman >. ir ' 1 " t/crland 
elmann, Ezio Pinza and Giacomo Lauri- Claudel. of Amsterdam, Holland has refu<u»H to ormt r.. . ^ 

Vclpi- «-* to the Wagnerian SocUtyite usual subsidl of LIGNEL _ ROTHAFEL., W- 

T'TTTT TflDOMTH CA7"h tdttzaxtt t zxr. f 

JOHN L. SEVERANCE, munificent musi¬ 
cal patron of Cleveland, Ohio, died on Janu¬ 
ary 16th, at the age of eighty-t 

_ __ , usual MihsiH-f • - V1 cr.L. i.iu.xtL KUirtArtL, la 

THE TORONTO SYMPHONY OR four thousand florins, because the Society^as IjT'X r hrcu , l:hout ,he th «' ric;l1 " 

sssrszt trS"- *■ ■» * - «- -* rss&zsszt 

auciing, gave on January 7th a Beethoven <,_ ; __ from producer of an amateur show at Car- 

-- „.- __ suae Con' .^mNNEW ZEALAND, has a Jun- b °" daI '- Pennsylvania, he rose to a position 

£S"“ s,mph0 ” y orf '“‘“ l “ me 

S“ : LZZ-^en^7oT ' iS, 0 '."" <■ only tK “J” h *™* <*' lo.roduCion .1 Ik 

making of music but also the fitting of the * u symphony orchestra into the theater. 

members for later places in senior musical "*-*■ 

groups._ ARNOLD BAX has a “Sixth Symphony" 

orches- fc *T2 5“ d p^S, t; ssajt 

-- annual series of con- 1W5, of the Royal Philharmonic Society, of 

THE COTTAGE at Broadheath, England, 

“v''',! 1 '? , Sir Edward . E1 S ar was bo ™. and THE “ROMEO AND JULIET” of Ber- 
which he loved and visited often, even after lioz has been given performance by the Con- 
he had become the most important figure in certgebouw of Amsterdam, Holland, with 

---— --- icugcuuuv* ot nmsteraam, Holland, 

Bntish music, has been acquired by the chorus, soloists, and Willem Mengelberg 
Worcester Corporation and, with the aid of ducting. 8 S 

a popular subscription, will be filled with 
manuscripts and other objects used and cher¬ 
ished by the master, ' 

Jerts b. aS New n v!>A 1S w rU‘ u< “ ser J^ s OI con - OI tne KovaI Philharmonic Society, ot 

k, _8. New York, for the pa st fifty years. London, with Sir Hamilton Harty conduct- 

----- THE GUILDHALL SCHOOL OF MUSIC . CODOUNOFF” of Mous- mg ' .j.__, 

Elgar Memorial, subsidized by the London County Council • ° h - ad Its first . Performance in England DR CART Rpcen i. 

-*■ and lar ? est (m attendance) of the music c 7 “"gmal version of 1868-69, when on been thUrer^A B V S 9 H h ‘ 1S 

THE “FOURTH SYM- schools of that metropolis, has expanded its f e ? te “ b ,T 30 T lh 11 °P™ed the season at Sad- timonM l?, P , °' a u ,CS ' 

PHONY, OP. 53,” of Al- work and hereafter will be known as the <pk “ was sun f? in the “real,” not and rfX °' ,h °“' 

’ ’ ’ ” first Guildhall School of Music and Drama. bbrett'st’s,” EngMsh of M . D. Calvocire^i Kansas r t pJ' 0 " 1 - 

’ ' and the press reports that Sadler’s Wells City Federation of 

. „ done nothing better. e " S has ^ us ' c Clubs, as a tribute 

_ e’lanri -'-f or bis wonderful service 

Hall, by the Boston Sym- Ohio, when on January 2nd it furnished the t? 'NUIT DE NOEL,” a cantata hv th mus ‘? aI cu *ture of 
phony Orchestra with program of the Cleveland Symphony Or- E ^ an ^ e Une Lehman, had its world premiere ^ cf C °l?r? 1Unity ’ in his al ‘ 

Serge Koussevitzky con- chestra- with Artur Rodzinski leading when given on December 2nd, 1935 at Car ' T ty >Car? of rcM ‘ 

negie Music Hall of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania - Inter n a tiona!l : 

bert Roussel had 
performance in New York 
when, on January 11th, it 

Serge Koussevitzky _ 

ducting. It failed, however, 
to create the enthusiasm 
which had marked 

world premiere, at Paris, celebrated durirg the present vear bv wide Thie production, led by Ferdinand Filficm with s '" t- firet fymphon -V orchestra. Some years 

~ - - ,h “ s=p=^r tf.JKfiss**a sk H fssjmss 

received. y entnus >ast 1C ally to Scandinavian music hi America. 

(Continued o 

livan operas. 

What Public School Music Needs 

T HE HOST CITY, this year, for the Music Educators’ 
National Conference (formerly Music Supervisors’ 
National Conference) is New York. This, the largest 
convention of musical interests held anywhere in the 
world, opened on March 29th,. for a five-day session, with 
the headquarters in the Hotel Pennsylvania. 

The Etude has solicited the opinions of a large group 
of the foremost men and women in this field and takes 
pleasure in presenting herewith extracts from a number 
of very constructive letters which should be read with 
great interest by all who have at heart the concern of 
musical progress in America. 

These letters express a great variety of opinion; from 
them, however, one important observation is that music, 
perhaps more than any other study, extends from the 
school to the community and links the educational system 
with the home. It is also one of the studies which may be 
carried on until it becomes a very vital part of the adult 
life of the student. 

Many of our supervisor friends replied at considerable 
length but the limitations of this editorial are such that 
we can present only brief quotations, retaining other ma¬ 
terial for more extended presentation later. 

Many of our writers have been presidents of the Music 
Educators’ National Conference. 

Mr. Edward Bailey Birge, head of the Public School 
Music Department of the University of Indiana: 

“The greatest need of school music now and always is 
an active partnership between teacher and pupil in the 
study and enjoyment of the best music obtainable.” 

Miss Ada Bieking, Director of the Arthur Jordan Con¬ 
servatory of Butler University at Indianapolis and one of 
the best known authorities on public school music: 

“School music is being considered as quite a definite 
entity, functioning in the educational program and con¬ 
tributing in a large way to the school life. If the school 
music education program could be made a more virile 
thing with a ‘carry-over’ into the family and community 
life, or considered a thing not of itself alone, but rather 
blended into the sum total of experiences and the neces¬ 
sities of life, then would it be fulfilling its mission.” 

Mr. George Oscar Bowen, of Tulsa, Oklahoma (former 
president of the Music Educators’ National Conference) : 
“The greatest challenge to all education today is that we 
must ‘provide for the ever increasing leisure hours,’ and 
make possible ‘more wholesome and richer living.’ But 
this is not for today and its present generation of work¬ 

ers. We are too late for that. We must educate the young 
people of today, starting in the beginning elementary 
grades and continuing on up through junior and senior 
high school, and possibly through college, until they 
come to appreciate the fact that they must be respon¬ 
sible for their actions in the ever increasing ‘leisure 
hours.’ Public school music educators should lead all 
other educators in the social sciences, for music, more 
than any other subject, is needed by every human being, 
and particularly is it needed in times of leisure. ‘Music 
is Life. It follows, therefore, that education in music 
should furnish opportunity for happiness and fuller 
living; an opportunity for the child to become at his 
own level, a child musician; an opportunity for him to 
discover music for himself and himself musically.’ ” 

Mr. William Breach, Director of Music of the Public 
Schools of Buffalo, New York (former President, Music 
Educators’ National Conference) ; 

“My first reaction is to think of the great need we have 
for definite carry-over of the music work in the schools 
with the community. We develop fine school choruses, 
hands and orchestras, and are producing remarkable in¬ 
strumental class work, and as yet, there is very little 
tangible evidence in most communities of any carry-over 
into community life. As soon as most of the pupils leave 
school their active participation in music seems to be at 
an end. Surely, if we are to justify the expenditures now 
being made for music instruction, music supplies and 
music equipment, we must bridge over this gap.” 

Mr. Walter Butterfield, Director of Music of the Public 
Schools of Providence, Rhode Island (former President, 
Music Educators’ National Conference): 

“I am inclined to think that our greatest need is thor¬ 
oughly trained teachers who can lead boys and girls in 
their music study so that they will receive the full force 
of what music has to give them. I mean this to cover both 
the intellectual and emotional aspects of music.” 

Mr. Russell Carter, Supervisor of Music, The Univer¬ 
sity of the State of New York: 

“To my mind, the greatest present day need in the field 
of school music is that the teachers and supervisors of 
music shall fully realize that the aim of music instruc¬ 
tion is the intelligent performance of music, up to the 
ability-level of the pupil.” 

Dr. Frances E. Clark, founder of the Music Educators’ 
National Conference and for years director of the musical 
educational division of the RCA Victor Company, Inc.: 


Viatsion, J&tzanai Sducaian^sst 

Sources of data: Income estimated brj tile National Bureau of Economic 
Research. School costs from various reports of tile U.S.Department of 
Interior, Office of Education. 


APRIL, 1936 


“1. Better training of the special teachers and super¬ 
visors of music, requiring a higher order of musician- 

“2. A deeper realization of the value of music in 
education, on the part of school executives, resulting in 
a more equable time allotment in the school day for 
music work, in a larger number of courses offered, and 
in a number of teachers employed on a parity with other 
subjects of like importance. 

“3. Vigorous efforts on the part of all educators and 
musicians alike to establish music as a fundamental in 
the state curricula of every state in the Union, with the 
concomitant necessity of placing music in the required 
subjects for examination and licensing of all teachers. 

“4. The allocation of school funds to equip and main¬ 
tain the music courses in appreciation, orchestra and 

“5. A continuing raising of standards of material used 
in schools—better songs and higher type of choral mate¬ 
rial, the highest type of illustrative material for appre¬ 
ciation, and an ever increasing demand for higher class 
selections for school bands and orchestras.” 

Mr. Louis Woodson Curtis, Supervisor, Music Section, 
Board of Education, Los Angeles, California: 

“It seems to me that the greatest present day need in 
the field of school music is a more intelligent administra¬ 
tion of the music program on the part of general educa¬ 
tors, members of boards of education, superintendents 
of schools, principals, and classroom teachers. 

“Specialists in the field of music education have de¬ 
veloped a rich and comprehensive program of instruc¬ 
tion, the successful fulfillment of which depends upon 
a generous time allotment for music, the assignment of 
qualified teachers to carry out this program, and the 
allocation of sufficient funds for the purchase of ade¬ 
quate equipment and material. There is undoubtedly an 
increasing interest in and enthusiasm for music, in the 
school administration circles; but it is important that 
that interest and that enthusiasm be practical instead of 
purely sentimental. 

“Fortunately for me, personally, so far as Los Angeles 
is concerned there is an intelligent appreciation of the 
value of music, on the part of our local administrators; 
although our music departments are still feeling the 
sting of the depression, as are other fields, academic 
and special.” 

Dr. Hollis Dann, Director of Music Education at New 
York University (former President, Music Educators’ 
National Conference), writes as to the greatest need in his 

“1. Adequate musical education for the supervisor 
and classroom teacher. 

“2. Better music used from kindergarten to college.” 
Dr. Peter Dykema, Professor of Music at Teachers’ Col¬ 
lege, Columbia University (former President of Music 
Educators’ National Conference) : 

“1. A clearer formulation of the place of music in life. 
“2. Better prepared teachers. 

“3. More understanding superintendents and boards of 

Mr. Will Earhart, Director of Music of the Public 
Schools of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (former President of 
the Music Teachers’ National Conference): 

“Public school music, in General Education, should 
seek an inner experience of music’s beauty and power. 
Public demonstrations are secondary.” 

Mr. J. Henry Francis, President of the Southern Con¬ 
ference for Music Education, Charleston, West Virginia: 

. “I believe we need a clearer, more complete under¬ 
standing by and between the public at large, and edu- 
cators generally, as to what has been, should, and can 
be done in the way of music education, to aid in enjoy¬ 
able living and the development of our citizenry.” 

Mr. Karl W. Gehrkens, Professor of the School of 

Music at Oberlin University (former President, Music Edu- 
cators’ National Conference) : . , _ ., , , 

“The greatest present day need in the held ol school 
music is a larger number of teachers who are, on the one 
hand, excellent musicians and who, on the other, love 
music so sincerely that their enthusiasm will cause mil- 
lions of children in the public schools to develop a 
deeper and wiser and more ardent love for the tonal 

Mr. T. P. Giddings, Director of Music, Board of Educa¬ 
tion, Minneapolis, Minnesota: 

“Money. It is all in one word. With this in plenty, we 
could buy the necessary instruments for the develop¬ 
ment of the instrumental side. This is the coming thing, 
and it has hardly commenced. Teachers. Class teachers 
that can really teach a lot of pupils at once. Music 
study has been too expensive. It must he cheapened; and 
to do this a new type of teacher must he developed. 
They are coming on rapidly hut not expert enough as 
yet. Public opinion is already developed. Fulfillment is 
what is needed.” 

Mr. Glenn Gildersleeve, Director of Music Education, 
Department of Public Instruction, Dover, Delaware: 

“Less than half of American children have school 
music. Provisions for teaching music in poor and rural 
districts is our greatest need. To encourage this there 
should be provided: (1) More federal uml state aid for 
equalizing educational opportunities; (2) Increased 
recognition of music as a regular school subject by state 
and county departments of education; (3i Additional 
music certification requirements for grade teachers; and 
(4) Improved techniques of supervision whereby music 
teaching may he effectively directed by itinerant special 
teachers who visit classrooms much less frequently than 
is the present practice in large city systems, thus reduc¬ 
ing the cost of supervision so that poorer districts can 
afford the service.” 

vficiiii, rurecior oi .music ot the rulilic 
Schools of Kansas City, Missouri (former President of the 
Music Educators’ National Conference): 

“The public schools have taken the ‘high hat’ off of 
music in America; it is no longer for the privileged few. 
Wherever it has been well taught in the schools, cverv 
child knows the joy of music making; for the idea of 
one s own activity in the arts being essential to the pur¬ 
suit of happiness is accepted generally. 

“In these days the bars are down: for the general 
educator has come to realize that music is a fundamental 
need. He has said to the music educator. Widen the 
horizon of every child through experience in music.’ 
tie,J?°’ U r a f’ ,Y hat 18 th . e " reatcst need in the present 
ThT,J ^ d 8 a V eachers havin S vision and training, 
onlt f 381 When a , P erson ’ who is an enthusiast 

only, may be a successful supervisor of music That 

East°when St -° gCt re8ul,s ' Also the day is 

past when a person trained in vocal music can take 
charge of the instrumental classes, and vice versa. If the 

ot training Z ' !* T "f'" ki " d 

need in America. School, where ET.?e ki'tjZ 
{Continued on Page 262) 






“One of the se¬ 
crets of keeping 
young is to spend 
a part of one’s 
time with youth. 
What is more in¬ 
spiring than to 
see these little 
tots as well as 
youths starting 
out on the voyage 
of life?” 


(In a section of their large collection of musical instruments ) 

"Start the Day with a Son 

A Conference with the World’s Most Famous Industrial 

Henry Ford 

Secured expressly for The Etude Music Magazine 

T he following confer¬ 
ence was secured after long nego¬ 
tiations with Mr. Henry Ford, 
largely because The Etude feels that its 
readers should be acquainted with the dis¬ 
tinctive and original educational ideas and 
ideals of a man who has always thought 
for himself, copied no one, and who has 
taken time to devote his energies to the 
development of plans in education which 
might otherwise have been lost. The 
material upon which this conference is 
based was obtained by the Editor during 
several hours in company with Mr. Ford, 
inspecting the evidences of the educational 
ideals in which he is most interested at 
Greenfield Village, Dearborn, Michigan 
(Dearborn is adjacent to Detroit). 

Mr. Ford, now in his seventy-second 
year, has the litheness and agility of a man 
of half his age; and the quickness of his 
intellect is amazing. His simple honesty of 
expression, his lightning grasp of new prob¬ 
lems, his astonishing memory and his ab¬ 
sence of cant impress one instantly. Per¬ 
haps the best way in which to describe his 
personality to Americans is that he is “just 
folks.” In walking through parts of his 
vast undertakings he repeatedly addressed 
great numbers of his employees by their 
first names and thus indicated the existence 
of a democratic feeling which is ideally 

Where Mass Production Reigns 
0 ONE who has not actually visited 
the Ford enterprises, industrial and 
educational, at Dearborn, Michigan, can 
have any conception of the immensity of 

these interests. Greenfield Village is only 
a small part of the vast Ford activities, but 
they are of immense pioneer significance. 
At the River Rouge plant, where from six 
to seven thousand automobiles are made 
daily, the factories are two miles square. 
One building is over one mile long. Scores 
of acres of parking space are required to 
provide for the thousands of cars of the 
employees. The body of workers there may 
run as high as one hundred thousand— 
larger than many of the standing armies of 
the world—and this is a standing army of 
peace. The total number of Ford workers 
throughout the world has soared to two 
hundred thousand. It has been roughly 
estimated that at times there are, directly 
and indirectly, upwards of half a million 
people deriving their income from indus¬ 
tries dependent upon this great industrialist. 

Despite the enormity of the Ford enter¬ 
prises, every little corner throughout the 
immense Ford operations has an air of 
tidiness, orderliness and a lack of litter 
that instantly attracts attention. Every¬ 
thing is polished up like a new penny; and 
wherever one goes, save in the replicas of 
venerable buildings, there is the impression 
of a new enterprise just opened for business. 

Greenfield Village at Dearborn, in which 
Mr. Ford is making magnificent efforts to 
preserve the fundamental American evi¬ 
dences of culture and achievement, is in 
itself a monument to his ideals which is cer¬ 
tain to become a great shrine of American¬ 
ism. To have the privilege of going through 
this village and the adjacent Edison Insti¬ 
tute, with its enormous and remarkable 
collection of Americana, with Mr. Ford in 

person, is an opportunity of a lifetime. His 
personal intimacy with all the details of 
this vast assembly of objects of artistic, 
industrial and social interest, is notable. 
From a rare Duncan Phyfe chair to a Ger¬ 
man street piano (such as was prevalent 
everywhere in our cities in the last cen¬ 
tury), Mr. Ford passes with the keen ob¬ 
servation of a trained connoisseur. Per¬ 
sonally, it is a delight to note his enthu¬ 
siasm, his simplicity and his graciousness. 

Naturally, this great industrialist is care¬ 
fully guarded by numerous able aides 
against any who would strive to make in¬ 
vasions upon his valuable time. It would 
be impossible for him to meet more than a 
few of the ceaseless number of people who 
desire to see him. 

A Project in Study 

N ORDER to comprehend the far-reach¬ 
ing nature of Mr. Ford’s educational 
projects at Greenfield Village, a description 
of the Edison Institute and Greenfield Vil¬ 
lage is desirable. 

Two hundred acres at Dearborn, Michi¬ 
gan, have been set aside for an educational 
project which reflects the ideas of its 
founder, Henry Ford. The name “Edison” 
typifies the spirit of the institution. Mr. 
Ford has named it after his friend, Thomas 
A. Edison, who has been an inspiration to 
him and many others in his untiring work. 
Serving the institute is a museum which 
is really a textbook of human and techni¬ 
cal history. The museum is intended to 
minister to the student type of mind; that 
is, its purpose is primarily educational. 

The museum building is fronted by a 

“I haven’t any 
doubt at all 
that all of us 
would be a great 
deal better, hap¬ 
pier and health¬ 
ier, if we real¬ 
ized the benefits 
of singing. It 
is one of the 
healthiest exer¬ 
cises of all.” 


group of units containing classrooms, work¬ 
shops, libraries, auditorium and executive 
offices. These buildings are architectural 
reproductions of Independence Hall, Con¬ 
gress Hall and the old City Hall of Phila¬ 
delphia. The reproduction of Independence 
Hall is the center unit, which is joined by 
arcades and corridors to the exhibition 
building in the rear, the auditorium on the 
left, and galleries and classrooms on the 
right. Visitors enter the museum through 
the door of the central unit. As the exhibits 
are not yet completely installed, the public 
is being given an opportunity to see the 
methods and labor involved in arranging 
the material. 

The very great size of this museum, even 
in its present state, is indicated by the fact 
that the main exhibition hall includes eight 

Musical Treasures 

T HE MUSICIAN visiting the museum 
will be interested in the many old 
musical instruments which Mr. Ford has 
assembled, and especially since it is only 
a fraction of his large collection, which 
will be placed upon display later. Among 
other rare instruments, Mr. Ford.owns the 
famous Maud Powell Guamerius violin. In 
his home is an Estey pipe organ. 

Supplementary to this group and adjoin¬ 
ing it on the east is the historical Green¬ 
field Village. Here the handicraft arts of 
the past are presented as they were prac¬ 
ticed in their original environment of public 
buildings and residences, which in their 
turn illustrate the development of architec¬ 
tural types. 

APRIL, 1936 


Iii Greenfield Village there are already 
over fifty original buildings and restora¬ 
tions, all of great historical significance, in¬ 
cluding the birthplace of William H. 
■ McGuffey, author of the famous McGuffey 
Readers, the courthouse where Lincoln 
practiced, the large Edison Menlo Park 
group, where many of the famous in¬ 
ventor’s creations first saw light, the house 
in which Stephen Foster was born, Luther 
Burbank’s office, and the little brick shed 
where Mr. Ford built his first automobile. 

The nation is familiar, through radio, 
with the Sunday night hour, in which the 
Ford Motor Company, Mr. Henry Ford, 
Founder, and Mr. Edsel Ford, President, 
present the Ford Symphony Orchestra 
under Victor Kolar, together with world 
famous artists. Fred Waring also conducts 
each week an hour of lighter music. It 
has been estimated that over a million and 
a half dollars is spent yearly upon these 
remarkable concerts. The symphony hour, 
with the homely and inspiring addresses 
of Mr. W. J. Cameron, have unquestioned 
value in our American musical and intel¬ 
lectual life. 

The Etude considers it a matter of very 
great good fortune that Mr. Ford consented 
to give our readers his time and interest, 
which have enabled us to prepare the fol¬ 
lowing unusual conference with the world’s 
greatest industrial leader. 

Beginning With Music 

S TART THE DAY with a songl 
That is the way in which we begin 
each day at Greenfield Village, at the 
chapel of Martha-Mary, in which all of 
the students of the school, from kinder¬ 
garten to high school grade, assemble. 
Singing is a mental tonic which is most 
beneficial. It seems to awaken and quicken 
the mind and to make it more alert for 
impressions—those very impressions which, 
when absorbed in youth, stay with us for 
a~ lifetime. 

“In this chapel the students hold their 
morning opening services, which embody 
inspiring recitations, hymns and songs. 
Each morning, with few exceptions, of 
the past six years, whenever I have been 
at home I have attended at eight-thirty 
these opening exercises. I am sure that 
singing contributes splendidly to starting 
the day right. The children lpve to sing 
the simple songs and hymns; and I find 
it a very refreshing and exhilarating ex¬ 

perience to be present and listen to them. 
I would not miss it for anything. 

“One of the secrets of keeping young 
is to spend part of one’s time with youth. 
They are the newest things in the world ■ 
fresh from the Invisible—and they are the 
dawning future. What is more inspiring 
than to see these little tots as well as the 
youths starting out on the voyage of life? 
It is not only that they as individuals are 
in their formative years —in them the world 
of the future is in its formative years too. 
We can get, through their youth, some 
glimpses of what that world may be. What 
we are trying to do at Dearborn is to set 
before them the best of the world to date, 
so that they may choose what they need 
and take it into the future with them. We 
have no illusions about ‘bringing up’ the 
young folks—it is just a question with me 
whether they do not ‘bring up’ us adults. 
Children have a great influence on grown¬ 
ups. We hope our influence on them is 
as helpful. At least we are trying to make 
it so. And music is one of the means to 
this end. We inherited music—we must 
bequeath the best of what we have re¬ 
ceived. If these young people are the fu¬ 
ture, is it not a splendid thing to see the 
future come singing? 

A Musical Tonic 

“T HAVEN’T any doubt at all that all 

A of us would be a great deal better, 
happier and healthier if we realized the 
benefits of singing. Everybody who can 
sing at all ought to do so—every day if 
possible. It- is one of the healthiest exer¬ 
cises of all. The process of breathing and 
exercising the diaphragm is alone invalu¬ 
able. I do not know whether the vibrations 
of singing have any beneficial effect upon 
the body, but I do know that there have 
been cases of stammering which have seem¬ 
ingly disappeared after regular daily sing¬ 
ing. I have seen this in our own schools. 
Get the kind of music you like, go to it 
with a lusty good will, and see if you do 
not feel like a different person after a few 
weeks of singing every day. 

“My own musical knowledge in youth 
was limited to singing, and to playing the 
fiddle and the jew’s-harp. But I am im¬ 
mensely fond of the music I like. Please 
make that distinction. It has always seemed 
to me a great mistake for people to say 
that they like certain kinds of music, when 
what they really mean is that they do not 
want to be regarded as deficient in taste 

or lacking in appreciation. That is a false 
attitude. Even great musicians do not all 
like the same music. No one should pre¬ 
tend to like anything which is often a pun¬ 
ishment for them to hear—especially after 
an honest attempt has been made to remove 
one’s dislike. Why not be frank? If you 
don’t find pleasure in certain music, say 
so. Other people may be genuinely de¬ 
lighted with this same music. Let us cheer¬ 
fully agree that a variety of tastes is neces¬ 
sary to the universality of music. Certain 
music that I hear often bewilders and bores 
me. Other men tell me it is the same with 
them—yet all of us confess to a liking for 

A Shrine of Simple Art 

“T\./f USIC - such as that of Stephen 

IVi Foster and others of his type, de¬ 
lights me immensely. For one thing, it 
speaks of things I used to know—it has 
deep association with my boyhood and later 
experiences. I enjoy these lovely simple 
themes, and I know that millions of others 
must enjoy them. Because of this, I pur¬ 
chased the birthplace of Stephen Foster 
and had it moved from the original site 
(in a run down section of Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania) to Greenfield Village at 
Dearborn, so that it has become a perma¬ 
nent shrine, where millions may see it in 
the future. Let’s go in and look it over. 
So many tales have been told about the 
poverty of Foster that you are probably 
surprised to note that though this house 
is small, it was evidently the home of 
people of culture and refinement. At the 
time that Foster was born, however, the 
house was heavily mortgaged. Despite the 
earnings from his songs, Stephen Foster 
died in New York without means. His 
brothers became prosperous and in this 
way retained the fine old family heirlooms 
almost intact; and their descendants were 
so generously appreciative of our efforts to 
preserve the old home that they presented 
us these rare pieces which once were used 
by the Foster family and which now enable 
us to present the home almost precisely 
as it was when Foster was a boy. 

“The fire in the fire-place, which I hope 
will be a perpetual fire, was lighted from 
fire sent us by Stephen Foster’s daughter, 
Mrs. Marion Welch, just a few days before 
she passed away. The fire was sent in two 
lanterns, both of which, after their primary 
mission of lighting the household fire was 
finished, were themselves kept burning. She 

knew the old house well—her famous father 
had often pointed it out to her. A Ham- 
mond Electronic organ, with inconspicuous 
loud speakers in all rooms, has been in- 
stalled, so that visitors may hear the Foster 
melodies when they are inspecting the 

Meanwhile, three musicians played for 
Mr. Ford, Foster’s “Old Kentucky Home,” 
using the organ, a vibraphone and dulcimer 
The perpetual fire, of which Mr. Ford 
spoke, is a part of his far-reaching scheme 
to make the wonderful collection at Green- 
field Village a living museum of the past. 
Fires in furnaces and hearths, started by 
famous men (Thomas A. Edison, Herbert 
Hoover, and others), are now burning and 
will be kept burning in perpetuity. 

(Mr. Ford's extraordinary Interview will 
be continued in The Etude of next month.) 

Pianos Return 

The following clipping from Vancouver 
Province has been widely reprinted in 
papers from coast to coast. Many Ameri¬ 
can manufacturers are reporting similar 

"Four or five years ago—that is to say, 
before the slump—the saddest men and 
women in England were those who were 
trying to sell pianos or teaching others 
how to play them. 

"Today there is an unexpected boom, not 
only in the teaching, but also in the manu¬ 
facture of the piano; and one London 
factory alone is producing over two hun¬ 
dred instruments a week. Inquiries among 
music schools and teachers disclose the 
fact that not since the palmy days im¬ 
mediately after the war—when the ama¬ 
teur jazz band came into being—have they 
had so many pupils. Many of the schools 
and teachers, indeed, who a year ago were 
on the verge of bankruptcy, have now 
waiting lists for pupils. 

“A large portion of these new pupils 
are young men and women in their early 
twenties, who in the old days would have 
learned to play the piano as small children 
at school. The explanation generally 
offered today is that the novelty of listen¬ 
ing-in has worn off, and music on the air 
is as commonplace an affair in most homes 
as turning on a tap in the bathroom." 








Easter Dawn in Music 

By Nancy D. Dunlea 

M ORE AND MORE frequently 
Easter religious services are cele¬ 
brated at dawn. Music and nature 
are combined to emphasize the beginning 
of a new season which symbolizes a 
spiritual hope. Therefore these early serv¬ 
ices, held at an impressive hour, require 
special planning from the musical stand¬ 
point, to realize the full beauty that is pos¬ 

Easter sunrise services, however, are 
not held exclusively out-of-doors. Because 
it is a custom, growing in community favor, 
to greet the dawn with appropriate music 
to make this religious festival joyously 
significant, more and more the Protestant 
churches are arranging services within the 
church or in a suitable building, as well as 
on hillsides. 

In Southern California thousands united 
last season in musical and religious services 
in outdoor locations. But Easter dawn 
services were held indoors, for example, 
at the McCarthy Memorial (Christian) 
Church in Los Angeles, to fill the increas¬ 
ing demand for this type of festival for 
those who could not go to more distant 
outdoor services. In climates where open 
air services are unsuitable, or on days 
when weather is unfavorable, the indoor 
Easter dawn service is of practically equal 

A sunrise service can be as simple or as 
elaborate as worshipers and resources de¬ 
cide. But a great deal of the awe and 
mysticism that pervades this early hour in 
a religious service depends upon the music 
used. The crowd may or may not catch all 
the words of a sermon, but music is a lan¬ 
guage that all hear on the farthest hill, 
or the highest balcony. It is even heard, via 
radio, by the shut-in, who thus participates. 
Music indeed is such a large part of the 
Easter sunrise service that clergymen 
recognize it as drawing eager worshipers. 
Equally important, for those attending, is 
participation in the music. 

In the Hollywood Bowl, probably better 
known for its “Symphonies Under the 
Stars” each summer, the following program 
for Easter 1934, illustrates the wisdom of 
congregational singing: 

Trumpets— Gloria Patri .Meineke 

All Hail the Power of Jesus’ Name 
Oh What a Wonderful Savior 
Thirty-five harpists 

The Lord’s Prayer, Josephine Forsythe 
Hollywood Festival Choir 
Holy, Holy, Holy 

By Audience 

"Christ the Lord is Risen Today” 

By Three Hundred Children 
“Open the Gates of the Temple” Knapp 
Hollywood Rotary Quartette 
Unfold Ye Portals (“Redemption”) 


Festival Choir and Harps 
Solo— I Tell You They Have Not Died 
All Hail the Power of Jesus’ Name 
Choir and Audience 

At Glendale, California, Easter open air 
services at dawn also drew thousands of 
worshipers to the slopes of a cemetery 
called “Forest Lawn.” Here, again, the 
audience joined in singing All Hail the 
Power of Jesus’ Name, following the open¬ 
ing of the program with a fanfare of trum¬ 
pets. This indeed is important psychology 
in putting so large a gathering in a rever¬ 
ently receptive mood. On this particular 
program these numbers followed: 

Hosanna —by the Orpheus Club 
Unfold Ye Portals and An Easter Song, 
by Glendale Women’s Choral Club 

Hymn— Awake My Soul, ’Tis Easter 
Morn, Women’s Choral Club and Audi¬ 

Reading— God of the Open Air, by Henry 
Van Dyke. 

At Mount Roubidoux, Riverside, Cali¬ 
fornia, the pioneer spot of outdoor Easter 
sunrise services, many journey long distances 
to attend. They even make the pilgrimage 
the day and night before, to gain a place on 
the slope. It was most appropriate that 
their 1934 service opened with Lovely Ap¬ 
pear Over the Mountains. This was sung 

by a soloist and choir. Other numbers that 
followed were: 

Unfold Ye Portals—Choir with piano 

Reading— God of the Open Air, by Van 

There’s a Wideness in God’s Mercy — 
Audience and chimes. 

In planning outdoor Easter music, acous¬ 
tics is one of the fundamentals. If a shel¬ 
tered platform, to throw the sound forward, 
is available, the use of soloists is much 
more successful. The organ, aside from 
its association with religious music, will 
provide more volume than a piano. But 
the chorus and congregational singing helps 
to make “the welkin ring.” Some of the 
effects possible can be forecast or tried 
out by means of phonograph records. The 
recorded Easter selections below are sug¬ 
gestions: Joy to the World (Victor 20246), 
Open the Gate (Victor 5S87), Christ Arose 
(Victor 19883), Holy City (Victor 6312), 
I Know That My Redeemer Liveth (Victor 
9104), Hosanna! by Granier (Columbia 
50032 D). 

Music especially appropriate for Easter 
dawn, arranged in parts, or chorus, is sug¬ 
gested below: 

Christ the Lord is Risen Again by Eric 
Thiman—four part anthem with organ. 

This is the Day— Psalm CXXIII, 24, by 
J. H. Maunder—four parts and organ. 

Our Lord is Risen from the Dead, by 
Edward S. Barnes—four parts and organ. 

The Promise of Resurrection, by Clar¬ 
ence Dickinson, for chorus, organ, harp, 
violoncello and violin accompaniment. 

Alleluia! The Strife is O’er, by T. 
Frederick Candyln—four parts and organ. 

This Glad Easter Day, arranged from 
Norwegian by Clarence Dickinson—solo 
and chorus with organ accompaniment. 

’Tis the Spring of Souls Today, by Ed¬ 
win H. Lemare. 

“Endings,” an article by Dr. Percy Goetschius, scheduled 
and announced for this issue, will appear in May 

The Lord is my Light, Cantata by Wil¬ 
liam Webbe (from Psalm 27)—four parts 
and organ. 

The Veneration of the Cross, by S. Rach¬ 
maninoff—four parts with piano practice 

Awake the Day is Dawning, by Lutkin— 
four part cantata. 

Now Christ is Risen —Chorus arranged 
by Martin Pliidemann, edited by Clarence 

Very fitting solos are : I Know That My 
Redeemer Liveth. by Handel; As it Began 
to Dawn, by Charles J. Vincent; and 
Blow, Golden Trumpets', for high voice. 

When the Dawn zvas Breaking is a 
Polish folk song in three parts, for women, 
arranged by Rose Phelps, with organ ac¬ 
companiment. An Easier song for women’s 
voices, a cappella, is by Paul Fehrmann, ar¬ 
ranged by E. Harold Geer. 

For closing numbers there is Now is 
Come Salvation and Strength, a four part 
anthem with organ accompaniment, by 
Perry Fletcher; and The Strife is Over, 
also a four part anthem with organ accom¬ 
paniment, by George Rathbone. 

Suitable Anthems are: Now is the Hour 
of Darkness Past (a cappella), by William 
S. Nagel; Christ, the Lord is Risen To¬ 
day, by Lily Strickland; For He That was 
Dead is Risen, by Lawrence; Shoutin’ Sun 
(Spiritual, a cappella), by Frances McCol- 
lin; and While It zvas Yet Dark, by 

Men’s Voices : King of Kings, by 
Simper-Nevin. Two-Part Choruses: Three 
Easter Carols, by R. R. Forman: and Na¬ 
ture’s Eastertide, by William Baines. 
Organ : The Risen Christ, by E. S. Hosmer. 

Carlyle said, ”The meaningiof song 
goes deep. Who is there that, in 
logical words, can express the ef¬ 
fect music has on us? A kind of 
inarticulate, unfathomable speech, 
which leads us to the edge of the 
infinite and lets us for moments gaze 
into that” 

APRIL, 1936 


A Pictorial Visit to the Birthplace, at 

JpblflU® SqtuW»%!E!5dfl^ttt 

t ails 



Eisenach, of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) 

7. Spinning Wheel of Bach’s Mother. Notice the Lute on the wall. 8. The Bach Family Crest. 9. Young folk celebrating Bach’s birthday by playing 
on his own instruments in the Bach House. 10. Bach’s favorite Violin. 11. Hans Bach, the great grandfather of Johann. The Violin shown was inher¬ 
ited and played by Johann. 12. Kitchen in the Bach Home. 13-14. Students at a Bach Birthday Festival. 15. Bach’s Cradle. 

APRIL, 1936 


The Private Teacher and Music in the Schools 

A Conference with the President of the Eastern Music Educators’ Conference 

George L. Lindsay 

Secured Expressly for The Etude Music Magazine 

G eorge leroy lindsay, a. b., 

Mus. B., zms born January 23, 1888, 
at Ashbourne, Pennsylvania. He was edu¬ 
cated in the public schools of Philadelphia 
and of Danbury, Connecticut. His career 
may be epigrammatically described. He is 
a graduate of Columbia College of Music 
and of Temple University. He was the 
first graduate to receive the degree of 
Bachelor of Music from Temple University. 
He has been for many years a teacher of 
piano and was for thirty-one years an 
organist and choirmaster. He was for 
some years in charge of the boys’ grammar 
school of the Wilmington Friends’ School. 
Mr. Lindsay was a supervisor of music in 
the Philadelphia schools from 1918 to 1925 
and since 1925 has been Director of Music 
Education of the School District of Phila¬ 

Mr. Lindsay is an instructor and lecturer 
at Temple University, the American In¬ 
stitute of Normal Methods, Columbia Uni¬ 
versity and the University of Pennsylvania. 
He is a composer of anthems, part songs 
and organ and piano compositions and also 
the author and co-author of many educa¬ 
tional articles and several books on school 
music in the field of class and assembly 
singing, school orchestras, music methods, 
and appreciation. 

Mr. Lindsay is the founder of the All- 
Philadelphia High School Music Festival 
movement and was one of the first to de¬ 
velop radio broadcasting of school music 
programs direct from school situations, 
which is now in its fifth year. Mr. Lindsay 
is also founder and ex-president of the In 
and About Philadelphia Music Educators 
Club and past president of the Music De¬ 
partment of the Pennsylvania State Edu¬ 
cation Association. He established the 
music section of Schoolmen’s Week at the 
University of Pennsylvania and is Presi¬ 
dent of the Eastern Music Educators’ Con¬ 
ference, for the term of 1935-1937 .— 
Editorial Note. 

A Campaign Problem 

T HE GREATEST common problem 
of the private music teacher and the 
music teacher in the public schools is 
that of convincing the larger public of the 
practicability of music. Once Faraday was 
approached by a lady who said, “Mr. Far¬ 
aday, I am immensely impressed with your 
theory of induction, but of what practical 
value can it be?” Faraday smiled and re¬ 
plied, “Of what practical value is a baby?" 
As a matter of fact, the theory of induction 
at that time had very little practical value, 
but since then its importance to electrical 
industries can only be measured in millions 
and millions of dollars. The trouble is that 
so many in the tax-paying public have little 
or no imagination. They see the money 
going out for something that is as intangi¬ 
ble to them as was Faraday’s theory to his 
friend, and they cannot picture in their 
minds that the money is actually being in¬ 
vested in something which will be worth 
millions to the State. 

Therefore, all private teachers and all 
public school teachers should pool their 
interests and work continually together. 
The investments made in music are of en¬ 
during value. The results may not be im- 


mediately recognized, but in the life and 
social environment of the child, these re¬ 
sults are very practical. 

A Vital Study 

A MONG the values of school music to 
. the individual pupil are: 

1. It has enriched child life through 
the singing of beautiful folk and art 

2. It has elevated the child’s taste 
through an intelligent listening to the 
radio and the recordings of vital music. 
This has broadened the horizon of 
school, home and community far be¬ 
yond expectation. 

3. The influence of music as an art 
has affected all types of classroom 
presentation. Teachers have realized 
that “mind set” alone is not enough 
for understanding. “Mind set” is a 
modern pedagogical term used to de¬ 
note the preparation of the lesson, so 
that the child’s mind is enabled to re¬ 

ceive the instruction in the clearest 
and most logical manner. Soul and 
emotion must be reached before true 
acceptance and real comprehension are 
possible. Music, as an art, has led the 
way in vitalizing and modernizing 
methods of instruction in general. The 
individual pupil and his personal point 
of view receive consideration; and the 
“lock step” of mass drill in memoriz¬ 
ing has given way to social class con¬ 
siderations in which young people are 
social entities who live, and feel, and 
think, and freely express themselves. 

4. The collateral activities in music 
in the schools, through orchestras, 
bands and large and small ensemble ac¬ 
tivities, have related, stimulated, and 
justified instrumental and vocal instruc¬ 
tion given by professional teachers. 

All of these activities have increased the 
desire to study music, so as to foster the 
material interests of all private teachers of 
music. The piano classes, the voice classes, 

the instrumental classes, which in mam- 
schools have been conducted within the 
schools themselves by school music teachers, 
as well as by part time professional music 
teachers, have enhanced the work of the 
private music teacher. 

Advance in Pedagogy 

M ethods of instruction in 

these days are continually changing 
and improving. Writers of musical text 
books are seeing things from new points 
of view. The private teacher of music 
should keep in continual touch with the 
latest phases of progressive education in 
the schools, as well as in technic of instruc¬ 
tion. The times demand that there shock! 
be this understanding, this coordination 
and, shall we say, articulation. The private 
teacher who looks upon the public school, 
which may provide little or no music in¬ 
struction, as a kind of natural enemy, con¬ 
suming the time for other things, which his 
pupil should have for music study, is in 
many cases himself to blame. It he kept 
in closer touch with the schools, he would 
find the school which supports music a real 
aid in his work ami he might find mam- 
opportunities to serve and develop his in¬ 
terests through channels which are not 
now apparent to him. 

The influence of school instrumental prac¬ 
tice has already manifested itself upon the 
country as a whole. There was a time 
when the players in American orchestras 
were ninety-five per cent foreign bom. 
Now wc have a very large number of native 
born players who received their incentive 
and opportunity partly through public 
schools. These new players are so fine 
that many of the orchestral performers of 
a generation ago would be amazed to hear 
them. We have to remember that when 
Von Bulow was rehearsing “Tristan and 
Isolde” in 1867, at Munich, the orchestra 
rebelled and said that such music was 
literally impossible to play. Now we hear 
high school orchestras in some cities play¬ 
ing the Overture to “Die MeistersingcA 
and the Tschaikowsky symphonies, and 
playing them very well indeed. 

In our own work we make a consistent 
effort to prevent the music from merely 
living and dying in the classroom as tech¬ 
nic, but carry it through all the fields oi 
instruction. We have, for instance, annual 
festivals, both local and city-wide, which 
engage the interests of over twelve thou¬ 
sand pupils. This idea is carried over to 
the community, and the parents and fricnF 
join in making music a real force in their 
lives. The broadcasting stations have co¬ 
operated with us for five years. We broad¬ 
cast, by remote control, assembly music 
programs, showing to the citizen in his 
home all types of group and mass music 
activities in well integrated programs. The 
response from the public lias been very fine - 
It is estimated that not less than one hun¬ 
dred thousand pupils and parents listen in 
to every broadcast. This influence uptm 
the music of the city is far reaching. We 
create a demand for private instruction, 
through incentives provided in schools, such 
as orchestral activities, which the private 
teacher would find impossible to bring 

(Continued on Page 254) 


The Musician's Relation to the Public 

From a Conference with 

Edward L. Bernays 

The Internationally Famous Public Relations Counsel 
Secured Expressly for The Etude Music Magazine 

I N MANY WAYS, Edward L. Bernays 
is one of the most distinctive human 
products of our modern and highly 
complicated age. More than this, his career 
presents one of the picturesque romances 
of the century. Born in Vienna, in the 
early 1890’s, he is a nephew of the famous 
psychologist, Sigmund Freud. He was 
brought as an infant to New York, where 
his father became a highly respected mem¬ 
ber of the New York Produce Exchange. 
Since 1848 many members of his family 
had lived in America, whither they came 
after the German Revolution which en¬ 
riched our country with many intellects too 
frank and democratic to be persona grata in 
the land of their birth. Thus, a relative 
of Mr. Bernays became the United States 
Minister to Sweden, during the Lincoln 
administration. It is interesting, in this 
connection, to recall that at this time 
Richard Wagner came very near to mak¬ 
ing America his home. 

The younger Bernays grew up in the 
brownstone section of Upper New York 
and was graduated from De Witt Clinton 
High School in that city. He attended 
Cornell University and was graduated in 
1912 with the degree of B. S. from the 
Agricultural College Courses (under the 
famous Liberty Hyde Bailey). After col¬ 
lege he entered the newspaper field and 
soon became editor of two medical journals, 
“The Dietetic & Hygienic Gazette” and 
“The Medical Review of Reviews.” Hav¬ 
ing become interested in Richard Bennett’s 
contemplated production of Brieux’s “Dam¬ 
aged Goods,” and convinced that the play 
was destined to be of very great value 
from the standpoint of social hygiene, he 
wrote to the producer endorsing the play. 
Bennett saw in Bernays just the kind of 
intelligent suppo'rt he needed and enlisted 
his volunteer activity and enthusiasm in 
promoting the much debated drama. Ber¬ 
nays organized a Sociological Fund to fur¬ 
ther the play. 

The Broader Activity 

T HE ENTERPRISE was so successful 
that it led Bernays into the field of 
music and the theater. Here he worked 
for years, publicizing many of the greatest 
living artists of the period, including 
Caruso, Barrientos, Pasquale Amato, de 
Luca, Elman, Nijinsky, the New York 
Philharmonic Orchestra, the Russian Bal¬ 
let, Elsie Ferguson, Ruth Chatterton, 
Fokine and Fokina, Igor Stravinsky, Anna 
Case, Toscha Seidel, Martinelli, and others. 

The technic that he developed in publiciz¬ 
ing these artists and also various dramatic 
productions, so that they would command 
favorable public opinion, laid much of the 
foundation for his later work as a Public 
Relations Counsel. 

In fact Bernays may be said to have been 
the dynamic force that created this new 
field for the promotion of industry, corpora¬ 
tions, individuals and all kinds of other 
enterprises. Press agents, or their equiva¬ 
lent, had existed since the early days of 
recorded history; but here was a new type, 
a scientist, applying all the latest discoveries 
in the social sciences to his task of gaining 
acceptance from the public for his client’s 
products, enterprises and ideas. 

The Broad Equipment 
be described as a man with a keen 
insight into human nature, a thorough 
knowledge of mass psychology, and a 
facility for making exhaustive analyses of 
the facts underlying a problem. Thus 
armed, he is in a position to mold public 
opinion so that it comes to an advantageous 
understanding of his client’s projects. 

With the Great War, Bernays was made 
a member of the United States Commission 
on Public Information, and in that capacity 
served in Paris during the Peace Confer¬ 
ence of 1918-1919. After the war he helped 
to further the reemployment of ex-service 
men for the United States Government. He 
helped to establish recognition for the Re¬ 
public of Lithuania. He then organized 
his own office and has been the Counsel on 
Public Relations to governments, corpora¬ 
tions, industries, and individuals. He has 
been a lecturer on Public Relations at New 
York University. His own organization, 
which embraces a large staff of trained ex¬ 
perts, is located in handsome quarters on 
the forty-third floor of the Irving Trust 
Building, at One Wall Street, in New York 
City. His services are considered of suffi¬ 
cient value to corporations so that they 
have gladly paid him fees comparable to 
those of outstanding attorneys. 

In 1922 Mr. Bernays married Miss Doris 
E. Fleischman, a gifted writer, a graduate 
of Barnard College, who is his partner in 
all his enterprises. 

Some of his outstanding accomplishments 
include Light’s Golden Jubilee; the 50th 
Anniversary of the invention of the electric 
light in which President Hoover, Thomas 
A. Edison and Henry Ford participated; 
Soap Sculpture, which has become a sig¬ 
nificant art movement during the last 
dozen years; the Actor’s Breakfast with 
President Coolidge, which served to reveal 
the human side of the late President; the 
handling of Secretary Hoover’s Committee 
to the Paris Exposition in 1925; and others. 

His vast contacts with all manners of 
people, from rulers and presidents down, 
as well as his familiarity with so many 
people of the music world, led us to believe 
that readers of The Etude would be most 
interested in tales of his remarkable ex¬ 
periences with great public men and 
artists, but we felt that even more interest¬ 
ing would be his reactions upon the public 
relations of the musician. 

In addition to many pamphlets and ar¬ 
ticles, Mr. Bernays has written two books 
which have passed through several editions, 
“Crystallizing Public Opinion” and “Propa¬ 
ganda.”— Editor's Note. 

Underwood t Vndencood 


The Business Guide 

M OST ARTISTS, whether of the type 
who think of nothing but their art— 
or those who, besides great artistic gifts, 
also have good business heads—usually find 
that they need help in managing their in¬ 
terests and their relations to their public. 

With the coming to the Metropolitan 
Opera House in New York of the late 
Otto Kahn, with his keen business head, 
the Board began to look around for an 
outlet for the services of its artists, to 
whom it was paying very high fees. I be¬ 
came a partner of the Metropolitan Musical 
Bureau, which was created to do precisely 
this. One of my first contracts was at a 
concert at the Metropolitan, given as a 
benefit for the widow of the Spanish com¬ 
poser, Enrique Granados, who, you will 
recall, was drowned on the British boat 
“Sussex” when it was destroyed by a 
German submarine. The program was one 
of the most remarkable ever assembled. 
Paderewski, Kreisler, Novaes, and a large 
number of famous singers, took part. This 
was far more than a mere concert. It was 
an “occasion,” a reverent memorial for 
the dead. Every artist appeared to be 
deeply impressed with this, particularly 
Paderewski, who came upon the stage with 
a dignity of mien that it is impossible to 
forget. Probably no one ever heard the 
great Polish master play more superbly. 
In the darkened house, his dominating 
mastery of the instrument soon spread to 
the entire audience. But Paderewski was 
not playing to them; he was playing to 
the eternal. Obviously, he was so moved 
that he played like a man trying to free 
himself from a deep personal grief; not 
merely the loss of a great fellow artist, 
but the tragedies of his native Poland, 
which this needless death so forcefully typi¬ 
fied. In addition to Paderewski’s art there 
was always the tremendous personality of 
the man. Had he been in any other call¬ 
ing, his idealism, his bigness of spirit, his 
brilliant intellect, would have made him 
a world figure. Instinctively he did things 
which attracted attention to him because 
he was not afraid to be original. 

The Pleasant Egotist 

I T HAS BEEN often found that one of 
the characteristics of certain types of 
genius is a kind of ingenuous but over¬ 
towering egotism. This is sometimes so 
extreme that one feels that he is dealing 
with a psychopathic personality, as indeed 
was the case with the famous solo dancer 
of the Russian Ballet, Nijinsky. I remem¬ 
ber that a well known journalist inter¬ 
viewed Nijinsky in the train, all the way 
from New York to Boston. As they were 
approaching the end of the journey, Nijin¬ 
sky inquired when the interview would be 
published. The journalist replied that it 
would take a little while, whereupon the 
dancer flew into a rage, declaring that his 
time had been wasted and that he wanted 
the journalist put off the train. He was 
in such a state of hysteria that we had the 
train stopped at the next station, and the 
newspaper man was glad to make his 

Nijinskv was one of the most notorious 

(Continued on Page 256) 

APRIL, 1936 


This cut is self-explanatory. It gives the range of practically all the musical 
the page give the relative rates of vibration per second. The table at th 
Units (indicated by A U)”; while that at the left is expressed in frequency 
frequency of vibrations, would require so many figures that there woul 

ents in graphic form. The tables at the be 

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Pitch Length Frequi 
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-C' . IS' 8 192 

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C* ’ y 2018 

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When Every Gentleman Was 
a Musician 

Memories of the Golden Age of Music in England 

A Conference with 

Marion Keighley Snowden 

Noted English Pianist and Lecturer 

Secured Expressly for The Etude Music Magazine 

PHE SUBJECT of this interview, Miss Company.” Pasaqualigo, a worthy Italian his contemporaries. At that 

Marion Keighley Snowden, was born 
i Birmingham, England. Her father is 

statesman and critic, said of Henry VIII, time, nearly everyone could 
“He plays well on the lute and virginals, sing or play at least 

member of a distinguished family of British and sings from book at first sight.” His strument. Indeed, 
writers and journalists. He is known as body of musicians numbered seventy-nine, sidered shameful not to be 
"The Yorkshire Novelist.” Miss Snowden In the Chapel Royal he maintained thirty- able to do so. Thomas Mor- 

t cousin of Viscount Snowden, one of 
England's most famous statesmen. Her 

o trained singers. 
Certainly, for about i 

ley, one of the best known 
century after the musicians of his time, wrote 

musical training has been directed entirely musical activities of Henry VIII, there a book called “A Plaine and 
by Tobias Matthay. For some years she ' " ' ’ - j 17 — i> 

probably more musical amateurs Easy Introduction to Prac- 
has been a professor on the staff of the among the aristocracy of England, in pro- tical Musicke.” At the be- 
Matthay School in London. She has toured portion to the population, than in any other ginning, he tells of a pupil 
a virtuoso. Recently country before or since. 

. extensively abroad a. 
she appeared with great success before the 
Annual Convention of the Music Teachers’ 
National Association in Philadelphia, when 
she delivered an address and played char- 

Musical Treasure Houses 

LIBRARIES of the British 

who had been visiting friends 
and to whom, after supper, 
his hostess had . presented 
part, earnestly requesting 

L Museum, of Buckingham Palace, of the him to sing. “And when,” 

acteristic music of the Elizabethan period. Bodleian Museum, and Christchurch, at he says, “after many excuses, 


Gowned a 

i lady of a Tudor Court, she Oxford, of Peterhouse, at Cambridge and I protested unfeignedly that 

London, I could not, everyone began to wonder, yea, Flemish envoys, and says: “There were 
amazing reservoirs of song folios some whispered to others, demanding how boys on a stage in the center of the hall, 
I was brought up, so that upon shame of some of whom played the flute and virginals, 
mine ignorance, I go now to seek out mine making the sweetest melody.” Boys who 
old friend, Master Gnorimus, to make my- had been educated at Bridewell and Christ’? 
for certain cultural projects, notably of the most colorful periods in history, self his scholar.” Hospital were considered more valuable as 

' " . ... —' servants and apprentices, because of their 

Instruments Everywhere skill in music. We read of a shoemaker 

I F PEOPLE went to visit their friends, who was thought an imposter because he 
they would find the viol hanging in the could neither sing, sound the trumpet, play 
guest chamber, so that they could amuse upon the flute, nor reckon up his tools i 

made a very impressive figure at the key- of the Royal College of Music 
board. all are amazing reservoirs of 

***** and old virginal books (much 

I F HENRY VIII introduced the Refor- script) from which even he of s< 
mation, he also introduced a fondness nation 

music and literature, which blossomed in Take, for instance, that picturesque Eliza- 
the glorious Renaissance that marked the bethan, Sir Philip Sidney. In the hall of 
reign of his brilliant and vivid daughter, 

Elizabeth. It is of course impossible to 
estimate just when what might be called the works of their host. Invariably music v 

e sometimes professionals, but ii 
Duke of Buckingham for alleged treason, instances they were enthusiastic amateurs. . 

i part of the program. The performers themselves if they so wished, and if men rhyme. On one occasion, a 

a who had 


the barber, they could pass the a situation in the royal stables was pro¬ 
of waiting their turns, by playing the moted to the duty of keeping eavesdroppers 

i 1564 the immense poetical, philo- 
Henry and the desires of his glamorous sophical and emotional personality of Wil- 

Upon this interesting cultural scene there lute, virginal, or cither; for these instru- from the council chamber door, and here is 

ments were always to be found 
barbers’ shops. There was 

the his description of how he passed an evening: 
: dawn, “Sometimes I foot it with dancing, 

court. The King was a zealous devotee liam Shakespeare; and nothing can reflect music at night, music at dinner, at supper, with my gittem, else with my cittern, then 

the importance of music at this period more at weddings, and at funerals. Sagudino, I carol up a song withal that by and by 

than the vast number of references made the Venetian Ambassador, describes a ban- they come flocking round me like bees to 

to the art in the works of Shakespeare and quet given by Henry VIII, in honor of the honey.” Here, you see, was a man of no 

great education who could 

of music and the court and gentry 
questionably influenced thereby. 

The musical ability of “Bluff Prince 
Hal” is one of the most in¬ 
teresting pictures in musical 
history. Born in 1491, he 
died in 1547. Note that he 
came to the world at the 
dawn of the great period of 
world adventure, marked by 
the discovery of America in 
1492. Civilization was un¬ 
dergoing a re-awakening; 
and, in all conditions of life, 
thought was changing might¬ 
ily. Henry was expected to 
be an ecclesiastic and was 
educated for the Church. In 
this way he must have been 
thoroughly trained in music, 
which, during his life, be¬ 
came his greatest avocation. 

The Venetian ambassadors 
noted with surprise, in 1515, 
that “he played on almost 
every instrument and com¬ 
posed with skill.” He is 
known to have composed two 
masses (now lost). His 
motet, still to be seen in 
the Royal Library, met with 
much favor. His favorite 
composition was one of his 
earliest, “Pastime with Good 


Maiefties letters p atents to Thomas Tallis and William Birde, 
far the pruning of mufeke. 

E L IZ A.B ET H by the grace ofGod fjueneof Fr ounce and Ireland' defender of the frith err. To ai 
printers boktftUers and ether officers rmmjlers and fubtctlsgreting, Knoweye.tharwefor the c-fpei tall affcFlion and 
good sot/ that me haue and be are to the fetence ofmujicke and for the aduauncement thereof ,ly our letters patents 
dated the xxt /. of lanuarysnthe xvt i .y ere ofour ratine,hauegranntedf nil prwtledgt and licence vn to our see (helotted Tallis and William Birde Gent, of our Chappell,and to the ouerlyuer of them, & to the affiants rfthem 
andtf thejurutuer of them,for xx/.ye arcs next enftting , to tmprtnt any andfo many as they mil of Jitfonge or fonges in 
partes , either in Engltfit , Latine, French , Italian, or other tongues that may ferue for mujicke either in Chunheor 
chamber , or otherwife to he either plaid orJoonge, And that they may rule and can ft to he ruled by imprejfion any paper to 
feme for pnntingor priifing of any fongc or fonges, andmay fell andvtter any prv.tcdbokes or papers of any fcngeor 
fonges, or any bookes or quteres offttch ruled paper imprinted, -jAlfo see fir.tightly bp the fame forbid all printers booke- 
fellers fubtelU & Jfrangers, other then as is aforefaid, to do any the premiffes, or to bring or cattfe to be brought cut of any 
forren Realmes into any our dominions anyfongc orfonges made and printed in anyforren comtrie,tofell or put to (die , vp~ 
pen paine of our high difpteafure. And the offender in any of the premiffes for euery time to ferfet to vs cur hares andfuc- 
ceffersfortie fillings,and to the/aid Thomas Tallis & VI jlliam Birde or to their &to the ajfignes efthcfuruiuer of 
the,ad & entry thefaid bakes papersfonge or fonges,We hauealfo by thefame willed <ffr commaunded our printers,matfiers 
& wardens of the mill erie offactoners,to ajfift the faid Thomas Tallis and William Birde & their ajfignes for the dene ex¬ 
ecuting of the prrmijfes. 

only sing but also play 
two instruments. 

Music, too, formed part 
of the education of all ladies 
and gentlemen. A young 
gentlewoman was supposed 
to be able to read and write. 
But this was not enough. 
She had to play upon the 
virginals, lute, and cittern, 
and to read from the book 
at sight. 

One of the most interesting 
men at this segment of the 
lengthy Tudor period was 
Sir Thomas More (1478- 
1535), statesman and author, 
Lord Chancellor under Henry 
VIII, whose “Utopia” is still 
regarded with classical rev¬ 
erence. He was a man of 
infinite charm, penetrating 
wit, fine moral courage and 
a humor that found him jest¬ 
ing even when he was on the 
scaffold. He bitterly con¬ 
tested the divorce of Henry 
VIII from Catharine of 
Aragon and thereby won the 
(Continued on Page 243) 

APRIL, 1936 


The Piano-Accordion in 

Musical Education 

New Thoughts on a New Instrument 

By C. Irving Valentine 

Head of The Music Department, Newtown High School, 
New York City 

As told to R. H. Wollstein 

arbused more new interest than any 
other instrument within the last 
twenty years. You will note that we say 
new interest, rather than a re-birth of inter¬ 
est, as has been the case with many other 
music making machines that have grown 
popular. This is because the instrument is 
something of a novelty. The accordion itself 
is not new. For generations one of the 
favorite “popular” instruments (that is to 
say, played by the people rather,than by pro¬ 
fessional virtuosi) of Italy and Germany, it 
partakes of the nature of a bellows-pro- 
pelled hand-organ. We can see its develop¬ 
ment from the old bible regals (German— 
beeble regals) of our ancestors in Europe 
and in America, later, the “lap organ.” 

But the piano-accordion as we know it 
today is different again. This difference 
grows out of a development in its construc¬ 
tion that is really a simplification. In ad¬ 
dition to the old accordion qualities, we see 
a regular keyboard for the right hand, 
formed and used exactly like the keyboard 
of a piano, and capable of the same fixed 
tones, the same fingering, and of the same 
power to produce both notes and chords. 
Furthermore, the piano-accordion carries a 
number of fixed basses for the left hand. 
This combination of keyboard and bass con¬ 
struction, then, gives us practically a new 
instrument, which in its present form is 
scarcely more than twenty years old. In 
the old accordion, the value of the tones 
themselves varied according as one pushed 
or pulled the bellows. Today, the tones are 
fixed, in both hands as they are on a piano 
or organ, and the bellows control only 
volume and dynamic effects. Thus, the 
scope of the instrument has been vastly en¬ 
larged, and its use much simplified. 

A Practical Instrument 

terested me, personally, partly because 
it is a good and useful instrument, and 
partly because I like to test out the possi¬ 
bilities of anything that can serve to create 
new musical activity. Then, in plumbing 
deeper and deeper into the value of the 
piano-accordion, it was discovered, pleasant¬ 
ly enough, that it has distinct interest of its 
own, in many ways. 

The piano-accordion is essentially a prac¬ 
tical instrument; and an acquaintance with 
it* is advised, especially for young people 
who already have some knowledge of tonal 
values and of the possibilities of the organ 
or piano keyboards. The piano-accordion 
is useful in that it can substitute for other 
instruments in school orchestras. In our 
own high school orchestra, we sometimes 
find a shortage of woodwind players— 
flutists, oboists, and the like—and, in pas¬ 
sages where such instruments are vital to 
the harmonic whole of a piece, the piano- 
accordion serves as an excellent substitute. 
Further, it blends with all the different 
orchestral choirs; it provides a fine, soften- 


ing background for brass solo work; it 
makes a thoroughly pleasant accompanying 
instrument for the mandolin, the oboe, the 
violin, the clarinet, the saxophone, and the 
flute; and—best of all—it is a delightful in¬ 
strument to play and can be carried any¬ 
where, on trips, picnics, or parties, where 
a piano cannot, and where harmonized 
music can add materially to the fun. 

So much as an informal approach to the 
piano-accordion. The practical thing now 
is, how to play it. Everybody can learn it, 
of course, and may derive a great deal of 
pleasure from it; but I always think that it 
fits most naturally into the fingers of those 
who already play the piano or the organ. 
For them, the right hand will offer no 
novelties or difficulties at all, although they 
will encounter some slight differences in 
fingering and touch. But they will have to 
get used to an entirely new technic for the 
left hand. 

An Adaptable Technic 

F IRST OF ALL, in playing the piano- 
accordion, the two hands do not work 
in a parallel motion as they do on the piano. 
The two hands work on opposite sides of 
the instrument and therefore seem at the 
very start to go against each other. This 
difficulty is overcome, however, with a little 

The real difficulty—and one which often 
makes for discouragement at the outset— 
lies in the work of the left hand. First of 
all, we must remember that the left hand 
on a piano-accordion does not play on keys 
at all. It plays on buttons, similar to those 
on an adding-machine; and these buttons 
do not follow the same order as piano keys. 
The notes which lie next to each other on 
the keyboard (or button board) are actually 
a fifth apart in tonal value, with the sharps 
ascending and the flats descending. This 
is true of all piano-accordions; still, the 
number of these basses or buttons (and 
consequently the variety of the music that 
can be played) differs with the size of the 

A Series in Size 

T here are eight sizes in ail, 

ranging from the very smallest to the 
very largest. For the beginner, the use of 
one of the smaller instruments is definitely 
advised. The smallest of all is known as the 
eight-bass piano-accordion. This means 
that, in the left hand there will be but two 
rows of buttons. One row gives the funda¬ 
mental basses as single notes, and the other 
row gives, with a single push from a single 
finger, the complete tonic and dominant 
chords. This eight-bass instrument plays 
mostly in the keys of C and G (where the 
chords just named have no accidentals), 
and is useful for playing the accompani¬ 
ments to simple folk melodies. 

Next, there comes the twelve-bass instru¬ 
ment, again with two rows of buttons, 
which give the fundamental bass notes and 


the major chords without sharps. This in- jump a fifth in the bass. It is easier in 
strument plays in the scales of F, C, G and scale work, and much easier to handle. At 
D. The twenty-four bass piano-accordion the very outset, tin- piano-accordion may 
has three rows of buttons, giving the fun- seem a bit clumsy to liandle, because the 
damental bass notes, together with the player must hold the weight of the thing 
major and minor chords. Here one can and at the same time manipulate the bellows 
play in the keys of E-flat, B-ilat. F, C, <while lingering. Thus, tin- pit 
and D, sounding the tonic, dominant, and tired from practicing on a smaller, lighter 
subdominant chords, and the chords of A in strum ent, exactly in L« SUM way in 
and A-flat besides. After this one, we get which in gymnasium practice the novice 
into the class of the “big” instruments. is given lighter weights and clubs at the 
The forty-eight bass piano-accordion has beginning. Once the left hand positions are 
four rows of buttons (the extra row pro- thoroughly mastered, and the player has 
viding the player with counter bass tones, acquired some dexterity in skipping filths 
as well as with the already mentioned and finding chords, be will take easily and 
fundamental basses and their chords) ; and naturally the larger piano-accordioa 
it will play in any key at all. So much for the difficulties of the instru¬ 

ment—which, in truth, arc not so enormous 
Table of the Position of the Left-Hand as they may sound. Now, for the advan- 
Buttons tageous side. The chief delight of thepiano- 

(Applicable to large instruments only) accordion >• t>) is the fin 

Outer Row.counter basses a fnU c C *? rd . wi ' 

Next “ .fundamental basses of the s.mplcr folk tnelo- 

“ .major chords d:! the range of 

“ “ .minor Chords tonic and dominant harmonies, an ertm 

“ .dominant seventh accompaniment can be played vnth tw 

c h orc j s fingers. Press one button, and the tonic 

“ “ (120 Bass), diminished chords < *° rd sollmls f " r;: 

Final “ (140 Bass) .augmented chords . ? the dominant 

the left hand fingering needs careful ma>- 
The very large instruments have still larger tering ' jt has ‘he advantage that all the 
possibilities; the hundred-and-twenty bass scn,cs are fingered in exactly the same 
piano-accordion has six rows of buttons * as,lion - Of course it is possible to plav 
with the dominant seventh and diminished c,u ' rc1 ' the riqht hand, too, but these 
chords added; and the hundred-and-forty must fin 8 cret * out quite as they are on 

bass instrument carries the augmented t,1c P ' aiX> keyboard. I" the simple taao 
chords as well. So there you have a fair alrcatl - v mentioned, it is perfectly possible 
idea of the variety of piano-accordions and to p,ay both melody and accompanying 
the music that can be made on each, from C "° rds witl ' the right hand alone. This is 
simple tonic and dominant accompaniments " llt rt ' c oimncndcd. however, tx 
to complete virtuoso harmonizations. hand obligations must not be shirked. 

A Study Process Power and Accent Control 

AND NOW TO COME back to the be To' 1 ^ ' AK ' 5 

A ginning, the piano-accord.'™ h A the tooes and the lingering ol the 

is advised to start work on one l>> a ”'’-acom1ion. The other gl 

smaller instruments—one with twent ^ d " Tt ' rcnc '( hs'wecn it and the piano i^ tbe 
four or forty-eight basses This ; " ent> ' mattcr of tone, volume, and touch. These 
mended for a number of r« S rec ° m ~ are controlled, not by the keys or the but- 
musical and physical. First oT'al'l ^he l"*’ 'r* *** bdloW *' Tllc I' laycr 

smaller instrument gives the tvlaver L. ! ear " how to control the bellows I the push- 
opportunity to master the difference 'lu I"® and P aUing ou t of the sides ot the 
position of the left-hand tones th . e ,nst ™ment) as he plavs. The smaller in* 

- with the regular 25Z&SRR ^ 




T he Etude is pleased to present the 
following article by Frank Simon, 
celebrated bandmaster and cornet soloist, 
the national broadcasts of whose famous 
ARMCO Band are enjoyed by millions. 
Frank Simon was born in Cincinnati and 
received most of his musical education 
there. When but eleven he showed excep¬ 
tional talent for the cornet, and became the 
favorite pupil of the late Herman Bellstedt, 
eminent cornet teacher, composer and mili¬ 
tary band expert. 

While still in his teens he toured the 
country as soloist with leading professional 
bands. The fame of the youthful virtuoso 
soon attracted the attention of the great 
John Philip Sousa; and he ivas offered a 
position with the world’s preeminent band. 
Soon advanced to the position of premier 
soloist and assistant conductor with the 
"March King,” his sensational solo per¬ 
formances prompted Sousa to name him 
"America’s Foremost Cornetist.” Steeped 
in the inspiration gained under this inimi¬ 
table leader, Simon responded to the urge 
to create a great band of his own; and in 
1920 he accepted an offer from the Ameri¬ 
can Rolling Mill Company (ARMCO) of 
Middletown, Ohio, to organise and conduct 
its band. Today he wields a baton over 
one of the world’s greatest bands, composed 
of Cincinnati’s finest artist musicians. With 
the ARMCO Band, Simon has filled en¬ 
gagements of national and international 
significance, both local and on tour. 

Frank Simon was the first bandmaster to 
recognise and provide for the need of a new 
and modern idiom in band music; by intro¬ 
ducing a modern vein to band programs, in 
keeping with the times. He enlisted the 
interest of Ferde Grofe, eminent modern 
composer, who not only transcribed several 
of his most famous works, but also wrote 
some important new compositions for the 
band. Encouraged by the popularity of this 
innovation, Simon interested a well known 
publisher in bringing out the first library 
of modern and impressionistic band music. 
Fittingly, the N.B.C. broadcasts of Frank 
Simon and his ARMCO Band were chosen 
for the premiere performances of these 
modern band arrangements. 

Frank Simon is president of the Ameri- 

By-Products of School Music 

By Frank Simon, Mus. Doc. 

President, The American Bandmasters’ Association; 

Conductor of his famous ARMCO Band; 

Director, Band Department Cincinnati Conservatory of Music 

can Bandmasters’ Association, an organisa¬ 
tion composed of the leading bandmasters 
of the North American Continent. He was 
one of the organisers of this Association, 
conceived for the betterment of bands and 
band music. A doctor of music degree was 
conferred upon him by Capitol College, 
Columbus, Ohio, in 1930, in recognition of 
his efforts in the advancement of bands in 
the United States. Appointed director of 
the Band Department of the Cincin¬ 

nati Conservatory of Music in 1932, Dr. 
Simon in a short time developed a student 
band which plays the finest works in artis- 

watched the effect that the depres¬ 
sion, from which we are now re¬ 
covering, might have upon music in the 
schools, and I was pleased to observe that 
in general, the progress of this great work 

was not permitted to suffer serious handi¬ 
cap. There were some instances, however, 
in which music was looked upon as a frill, 
and the economy ax was relentlessly 
wielded. This made me wonder if parents 
and taxpayers realized the powerful influ¬ 
ence of music in the schools, upon the 
future; for, if they had done so, they cer¬ 
tainly would have rebelled against the cur¬ 
tailment of this important phase of cultural 

While enthusiastically commending the 
foresight of the large majority of educators, 
who recognize the eminent place that school 
music should occupy, it is to be regretted 
that there are still those who look upon 
musical activities in the schools quite light¬ 
ly, or as a sort of “necessary evil.” Thank 
goodness, they are in the minority, and that 
day by day many are being won over to a 
broader vision. 

A Vital Force 

“ N THE BUILDING of nations, in fact 
in all civilization, music has played a 
significant part in that cultural leadership 
that has been necessary to intellectual 
progress. If we want America to hold its 
leading place in future civilization, we must 
not neglect those worth while things that 
make for a greater and nobler people. 
Music in the schools, therefore, must be 
given its full opportunity to continue with 
its important- contribution to this develop- 

Some who oppose music in education say 
that “we now have more musicians in this 
country than we can support, so why de¬ 
velop more?” My answer is that If we do 
not teach music in the schools the appre¬ 
ciation of good music will lose its strong¬ 
est impetus, and in the future we shall have 
less need for the professional musician, and 
music will gradually lose its place in our 
national life. On the other hand, by de¬ 
veloping, through the schools, a greater ap¬ 
preciation of good music, there will be 
adequate employment for all of the fine 
musicians, and those who do not meet the 
higher standards of musical excellence will 
naturally look to other fields for more 
appropriate employment. 


APRIL, 1936 


Music a Life Investment 

F EW HIGH SCHOOL and college 
musicians follow music as a vocation 
in later life, and yet I never have met one 
who did not concede that his musical edu¬ 
cation had been an experience that had 
enriched him intellectually and influenced 
his life to no small degree. “Why teach 
them music if they are not to become pro¬ 
fessional musicians?” is the question of the 
critic. This is equally as absurd as the 
writer who might ask, why teach history 
unless the student is going to be a historian; 
or why teach languages unless he is going 
to be a linguist or take up life in a foreign 
land; or why teach higher mathematics 
unless the pupil is going to follow the career 
of an accountant or financier? These sub¬ 
jects are all necessary to a well rounded 
education; and the developing of an appre¬ 
ciation and a knowledge of the fine arts is 
equally important. 

The refining influence of good music, in 
itself, should be a sufficiently powerful 
argument against the theories of those who 
are skeptical of the benefits of school 
music; and much has been written on the 
merits of good music itself. But let us give 
thought to other values that musical train¬ 
ing affords. We shall call them the by¬ 
products of musical education, which will 
show why, even apart from the knowledge 
of the art itself, music constitutes. a definite 
acquisition to a well rounded education. 

Music the Disciplinarian 

O NE OF THE FIRST things that we 
are taught in school is discipline; and, 
for some of us, this was hard medicine to 
take. The playing in a fine band or orches¬ 
tra has a wonderful disciplinary influence 
on young people, and not unpleasant either. 
We might even call it discipline of the 
“sugar-coated” variety. Precision and ac¬ 
curacy are the fundamentals of a large 
group of musicians playing together. Every 
cog in the machinery of a band or orchestra 
must be correctly meshed. To insure per¬ 
fect performance the players eagerly respect 
the clear-cut discipline of the conductor’s 
baton, just as later in life their success will 
hinge upon their ability to respect and carry 
out the wishes of those who employ them. 

The important value of detail is another 
lesson vividly learned through the study 
and practice of music; and, after all, how 
many people in this world have been fail¬ 
ures because of their inability to discern 
and recognize the importance of little things. 
To a musician, the slightest detail has a 
significant meaning. It may be a little dot 
no larger than a pin point, or a dash no 
longer than a sixteenth of an inch; and yet 
these little signs mean much to a proper 
interpretation. And so it is impossible to 
become a good individual performer, or a 
successful member of a musical organiza¬ 
tion, without the constant observation of 
these little things. With this type of train¬ 
ing, it is not unreasonable to expect that the 
perceptions of the student will become 
quickened and more accurate, whether ap¬ 
plied to music or to any other line of en¬ 
deavor. This is a lesson that a student of 
music cannot fail to learn. I have a young 
son whose ambitions point to surgery; and, 
if it were for the above reason alone, I 
should encourage his continuing musical 

Lessons for Living 

D etermination, that most impor¬ 
tant key to success in every Under¬ 
taking, is another great lesson that musical 
education has among its “by-products.” No 
one can become proficient in this art with¬ 
out real determination; and, in spite of the 
pleasure that playing good music affords 
the musician, first class performances must 
represent hours of determined and ofttimes 
arduous effort. 

I have likened the musician to a cog in 
a large machine, and that cog must per¬ 
fectly fit. In other words, musicians, 
properly trained, are taught to cooperate 
with each other for the perfection and har¬ 
mony of the organization as a whole. Truly 
a great lesson for any young person 
Everybody cannot be playing the most im¬ 
portant part all of the time; and, in learn¬ 
ing to fit their efforts into the general 
ensemble, young musicians develop that 
sense of cooperative relationship, and a 
sense of proportions, which will prove valu- 
ble no matter what their life’s work even¬ 
tually becomes. 

The spirit of comradeship among school 
musicians, even when they are friendly 
rivals for contest honors, has ofttimes 
brought a lump in my throat; and, to 
learn early in life how to be a gracious 
winner or a good loser is indeed the key to 
successful living. 

The Worth that Wins 

E NTHUSIASM, that driving force that 
overcomes the obstacles of life, is 
never more prominent than among a group 
of school musicians. When appearing as 
judge and guest conductor at contests and 
festivals throughout the country, I have 
reveled in and become permeated with the 
radiant enthusiasm displayed by these 
youngsters of music. I have answered rapid 
questions by the hour. I have witnessed 
an abundance of enthusiasm that many a 
captain of industry would like to employ, 
and someday will; for this same enthusiasm, 
developed in music, will carry the students 
on their roads to success in other walks of 

Pride is a worthy quality! Not the type 
of conceited, selfish pride that “goeth be¬ 
fore a fall,” but a noble pride in the ac¬ 
complishment of purpose. Many a time 
has the face of a youngster been seen to 
beam with just pride as he was being com¬ 
mended for accomplishing what he had 
believed impossible. This type of pride 
should be encouraged. 

Pride in personal appearance, when not 
vain, is also a worthy attribute. I once sat 
with the immortal Sousa at a national high 
school contest and saw tears come to the 
eyes of this great man who had himself 
enjoyed the highest honors that this world 
could bestow. In silent admiration, and 
filled with patriotic emotion, he watched the 
pick of America’s youthful musicians march 
by. Every uniform was immaculate, shoes 
were shining, belts glistening, shoulders 
were straight as dies, and heads as erect 
as West Pointers. Bright instruments were 
ringing forth The Stars and Stripes For¬ 
ever, with a fervor that sent tingles down 
our spines; and, I thought, “Can there pos¬ 
sibly be those who would take away from 
the youth of the nation such a heritage as 
this opportunity for musical expression?” 

But let us get back to our subject—The 
By-Products of School Music. No matter 
what vocation is followed by the school 
musician, even if the instrument of his high 
school and college days becomes tarnished 
with age and inactivity, he has learned 
many fundamental principles of life, aside 
from the knowledge and appreciation of 
music itself, that will remain valuable to 
him for the rest of his days. 

As to those whose genius has won for 
them a place in professional music, school 
music can take rightful credit for the dis¬ 
covering and developing of these gifts; and 
this talent has made America the wealthi¬ 
est musical nation in the world today. No 
longer need we look to Europe for our 
great artists, conductors, band and orches¬ 
tral performers; for, here in our own coun¬ 
try, music in the schools has discovered and 
unfolded talent which the whole world has 
come to recognize as the highest standard 
of musical accomplishment. 

"Music is a stimulant to mental exertion." —D’lsraeli. 

records and radio 

By Peter Hugh Reed 

Our importuning has been, however^ 
what undisciplined—so a worflo i 
discriminate listening might not fe a« 
There is a growing feeling among musicians 
that the radio is promiscuously broadcast¬ 
ing good music and endangering the future 

of that art; that it is diverting participation 

and promoting indolence, inactivity and in¬ 
attentive listening. This viewpoint 1 
so much a criticism against radio as a 
warning to its listeners. 

Without being pedantic, let us consider 
the status of the listener. Now the amount 
of music that one can absorb as an inactive 
listener may seem greater than that which 
one can absorb as an active participant, but 
it is in truth only relatively greater. For 
truly attentive listening, from which one 
obtains the maximum amount of benefit, to 
say nothing of pleasure, cannot be duplicated 
indiscriminately. Assimilating as much 
good music as one can over the week-end, 
or of an evening, usually leaves one with 
the feeling of having attained a saturation 
point—like soaking too long in a particu¬ 
larly pleasurable bath—but without the 
true feeling of having accomplished what 
one set out to do, which in the case of music 
should be to enjoy and appreciate some of 
the best and retain a stimulating and 
pleasurable memory of it. 

Indiscriminate radio listening—no matter 
to what kind of music—can nullify true en¬ 
joyment. For that reason, it might be well 
to catalog radio programs and plan to listen 
in the same spirit that one plans to attend 
an actual concert. Treat it as an especial 
event. And between times one should en¬ 
deavor to participate in music in part or 
urge those who can to do so. Let the 
young folks give a concert—no matter how 
superficial it may seem—rather than allow 
the radio to dominate at all times in the 
home. In this way, we can better encourage 
and assist the younger generation to reach 
and attain a greater goal. 

Great artists have in the past recorded 
many songs from their repertoires, but 
heretofore no singer has ever presented a 
recorded song recital. The first of its kind 
—A Song Recital (Victor Set M292) by 
Lotte Lehmann sets a precedent which may 
well be followed up. Mme. Lehmann, one 
of the most gifted artists of our day. has 
never been better represented on records 
than in this album. Her program is not 
only excellently chosen, but consummately 
rendered. It opens with two songs by 
Mozart: Die Verschiveigung and An 
Chloe, and continues with Schubert’s 
Ungeduld and Im-Abendrot. Schumann's 
Die Kartenlegerin and Waldesgcspraccli. 
Brahms’ Theresc, Meine Liebc ist grunt 
and Der Tod, das ist die kuchle Nacht. and 
ends with Wolf’s Anakreon’s Grab and In 
dem Schatten meincr Lockcn. In the book¬ 
let, which accompanies this recital. Mme 
Lehmann provides a short note on each 
song which accurately describes the manner 
m which she not only feels but also conveys 
their emotional content. 

There is an increasing rumor that re¬ 
cordings of Bach and Mozart sell the best 
This is comprehensible, since the music of 
both these composers embodies the most 
essential elements of a healthy artistic ob- 
In y! ine With this bought is 
Bachs Organ Toccata in C Major, which 

Rubinstein plays in the piano arrangement 
by Busoni. (Victor discs 8896-97). The 
consummate craftsmanship of this compo¬ 
sition is fully sustained and even clarified 
in this fine arrangement, which Rubinstein 
performs with superb artistry. 

Koussevitzky, conducting the London 
Philharmonic Orchestra, gives a highly 
personalized interpretation of Mozart’s 
great “G Minor Symphony” (Victor set 
M293). The precision and fervor of the 
slow movement and of the finale are par- 
ticularly praiseworthy, but the rhythmic 
rubato in the first movement is quite the 
opposite. The recording is excellent. 

The younger Beethoven, untroubled by 
life’s viccisitudes and stirred by no profound 
emotion, is evinced in his “Second Piano 
Concerto” (in reality the first in order of 
composition) and also in his “Seven Varia¬ 
tions on The Manly Heart." duet from 
Mozart’s “Magic Flute” for violoncello ard 
piano. The recording of the concerto 
(Victor set M29S) enlists the services of 
Schnabel and the London Philharmonic 
Orchestra and that of the “Variations" 
(Columbia disc 6841 IB) Emanuel Feuer- 
mann and Thco. Van der Pas. 

Prokoficff in his “First Violin Concerto* 
succeeds in creating sonic unusual technical 
innovations for the soloist. This brilliant 
and highly interesting modern work has 
been associated since its first public per¬ 
formance (1917), with the Hungarian 
Violinist Szigeti, who has mastered its 
technical difficulties and set up a standard 
of performance which has incited critical 
encomiums on three continents. In the 
recording (Columbia set 244). Szigeti if 
assisted by his greatest collaborator Sir 
Thomas Beecham. 

Elgar’s “Sonata for Violin and Piano” 
has an inspired Romans for its second 
movement, in which the composer's unusual 
technical pattern heightens and sustains 
his emotional qualities. This music is 
retrospective—a mature poet's memories of 
the sunlight anti shadows of youth. Its 
serenity and graciousness is particularly 
gratifying. In the recording (Columbia 
set 241) Albert Sammons and William 
Murdoch arc the sympathetic performers. 

Quincy Porter, Professor of Musk at 
Vassar, is an ardent chamber music devotee 
and also a competent composer for the 
string quartet, as his “Third Quartet - 
played by the Gordon String Quartet 
(Columbia set 242)—testifies. The first 
and second movements of this work are 
particularly well written— inspirational in 
thematic material although lacking in inno¬ 
vation. The recording is most realistic 

Recommendations: (for the pianist) Bee¬ 
thoven's Andante Favori plaved by Jose 
Iturbi (Victor disc 11670). Chopin's 
“Twenty-four Preludes" played by Alfred 
Cortot (newly recorded) (Victor set 
M282). and Stravinsky’s Serenade “J* 
played bv the composer (Columbia discs 
17051-52D) ; also Respighi’s ”Ross*“ 
Suite," arranged from pieces found in the 
notebooks of the composer, played by the 
London Philharmonic Orchestra, direction 
of Sir Thomas Beecham (Columbia set 
240). the Excerpts from Sibelius' incidental 
music to “The Tempest." which the san* 
conductor and orchestra perform so bril¬ 
liantly on Columbia disc 68409D. and the 
colorful “String Quartet" by the Brazil*' 
composer Villa-Lobos which the Carioo 
Quartet play on Victor discs 11212-13. 

vidually poetic than srhnZ h r ° manUc composers but he is more in¬ 
take his name from the ni O r £ manhc ’ ,hou(jh ,hr distinction cannot 

7 the roUs °f ih e Romantic school .—Thomas Tapper. 




Conducted Monthly by 


Rehearsal Procedure 

E VERY SINCERE band and orches¬ 
tra director has the earnest desire 
to develop a flexible organization that 
can read at sight with reasonable accuracy 
and comprehension—that is, with a fair 
degree of mathematical accuracy as pertains 
to key and evaluation of note values and 
with due regard to the artistic aspects of 
the music, such as expressional features, 
outline of phrases, and so on. The term 
flexible implies a pleasing and pliant qual¬ 
ity of tone, good intonation, precision in 
attack and release, sufficient sustaining 
power, and a smooth technical facility. 
Most professional organizations must 
possess all these qualities developed to a 
high degree, for they must often play con¬ 
certs with but little or no rehearsing; and 
every amateur organization may develop 
these same qualities to a very marked 
degree if the proper study and rehearsal 
procedure are employed. 

We may summarize the essential qualities 
of the artistic organization as being: 
Beautiful and Flexible Tone 
Correct Tuning 
Good Intonation 
Smooth Technical Facility 
Correct Articulation 
Expressive Rhythm 
Dynamic Contrast 
Tonal Balance 
Artistic Phrasing 

The organization or ensemble, whether 
a trio or full symphony orchestra, which 
possesses all these qualities to a marked 
degree will be acclaimed by its public. Yet, 
although these essential qualities are all 
rudimental in nature, the average director 
fails to give them due consideration and 
does not employ a rehearsal procedure 
which will most easily and most effectively 
assure their development in his organization. 

The purpose of a musical organization 
is the study and performance of music. 

The above mentioned requisites are the 
means to that end but they are too often 
neglected while strenuous and fruitless 
efforts are made to accomplish the purpose 
by some other method—ignoring the im¬ 
portant fact that the most efficient method 
of accomplishing a thing is also the easiest. 
Quite often the basic principles of musician- 
ship are sadly neglected while a rather vain 
effort is made to learn a repertoire by the 
old haphazard business of playing pieces. 

A Solid Foundation 

A ONE-STORY building may be built 
safely upon the ground, without ally 
deeply imbedded foundations. But the en¬ 
gineer who plans a building ten to forty 
stories in height must first sink his founda¬ 
tion to bed rack. Likewise, the musical 
organization which is to succeed in approx¬ 
imating the standard of musical excellence 
set by artists of the past must become 
thoroughly grounded in the basic principles 
of the art. 

A flexible and accurate sight-reading or¬ 
ganization can be developed by no other 
method; and such an organization—even 

though it devotes a portion of each rehearsal 
to the study of the fundamentals—will 
master a much greater repertoire (and 
much more thoroughly) than will the or¬ 
ganization which spends all of its rehearsal 
period in an effort to play pieces. 

Basing our argument upon the premise 
that scales and intervals constitute the 
mechanics of technic and that correct tone 
production, sharp sense of rhythm, and 
dynamic feeling form the basis of expres¬ 
sive technic, we will proceed to show how 
the proper study and practice of tone pro¬ 
duction studies, scalistic, interval, dynamic 
and rhythmic studies will best serve to 
develop quickly the requisites of the suc¬ 
cessful musical unit. 

Without a pleasing and flexible tone 
mere digital facility becomes rather fruit¬ 
less, consequently tone quality becomes the 
prime essential. No other method has been 
found that will equal the thoughtful prac¬ 
tice of sustained tones. This will aid the 
singer, wind instrumentalist, or string 
player alike in the development of a velvety 
quality of tone which he could never ac¬ 
quire through any other procedure. It 
is known that all great singers and instru¬ 
mentalists begin their day’s work by first 
practicing one or more scales in long, sus¬ 
tained tones—producing them softly, loudly, 
crescendo, diminuendo —listening closely to 
each tone in a constant effort to improve 
both the quality and pliancy. 

This attentive listening and experimenta¬ 
tion is what serves to produce the beautiful 
quality of tone which all great artists pos¬ 
sess. Such artists sometimes, when touring, 
find it impossible to engage in their usual 
amount of practice. If they can find oppor¬ 
tunity to practice for only twenty or thirty 
minutes before a recital that time is usually 
spent on sustained tone and scale exercises. 
This daily procedure not only enables them 

to master a lovely tone but also to retain it. 

Have you ever been back stage before an 
opera performance, or before a concert by 
a symphony orchestra or a great concert 
band? If so, you have heard the various 
artists walking about singing or playing 
sustained tones, scales, and broken chords— 
with just an occasional snatch of melody. 
They were warming up —getting themselves 
in form for a good performance. 

Can your organization sustain a pianis¬ 
simo tone evenly, unwaveringly, and in 
pitch for a duration of twelve to sixteen 
slow counts? If not, it is clearly deficient 
in the first requirement and would find it 
impossible to sustain properly a broadly- 
flowing phrase in which a fermata or ritard 
might occur. 

Can your orchestra produce a long cres¬ 
cendo or diminuendo which is evenly grad¬ 
uated and without any fluctuation in pitch 
or quality? Can your band play a long 
sustained swell evenly and smoothly? Not 
unless you have carefully considered and 
practiced these effects. All these phases of 
technical fluency can be developed best by 
diversified study of scalistic exercises. 

True Intonation 
OOD TUNING will result only from 
a development of pitch consciousness— 
and this is most surely attained through 
proper study of scales and intervals. Lack¬ 
ing a correct sense of pitch any string 
player will be unable to play in tune. The 
wind instrument player may think correct 
fingering will assure his playing in tune 
but no wind instrument is exactly in tune— 
it must be played in tune. Even if almost 
truly in tune the player who lacked correct 
pitch consciousness could easily play it out 

Through the attentive singing and play¬ 
ing of all common intervals—from a minor 

second to a tenth—the average player can 
develop the ability to feel the pitch of a 
tone before playing it, with the result that 
he will employ the correct tenseness of em¬ 
bouchure muscles to secure just the correct 
pitch. If the instrument naturally tends 
to a flatting or sharping of the tone, the 
pitch consciousness of the player will lead 
him to correct this fault. 

It must be obvious that, unless the 
players have been taught to play in tune 
individually, they will not play in tune with 
each other. In such an organization no 
amount of careful tuning to any fixed tone 
will assure good intonation. While it 
might, after a period of such tuning, pro¬ 
duce a good effect when sounding a unison 
upon the tuning tone any other tone which 
they might sound immediately thereafter 
would as likely be out of tune. 

No better method of assuring good in¬ 
tonation in an organization can be found 
than that of playing long tones in unison 
so that each player may have an oppor¬ 
tunity to listen carefully to and study his 
tone in relation to that of the other players. 
Any variation in pitch, any undue vibrato, 
any conflicting vibrations will then much 
more readily be noted and the necessary 
efforts may be made to correct them. Such 
observant practice will soon develop the 
ability to play in good tune at all times and 
without recourse to a lot of preliminary 
tuning before each rehearsal or concert. 

Some directors rely largely upon the 
playing of broadly-sustained chorales for 
the development of intonation and solidity 
of tone but this cannot be as effective as 
unisonal playing for the reason that faulty 
tone and faulty tuning will not be detected 
nearly so easily when playing chords. A 
chord may sound satisfactory to the aver¬ 
age ear even if one of its component tones 
is slightly out of tune while in unisonal 
playing any unpleasant waver can be much 
more readily noted and corrected. The 
woodwind player will either adjust the ten¬ 
sion of his embouchure slightly or employ 
a different fingering which will give the 
correct pitch. The brass player will learn 
to adjust either his embouchure or his in¬ 
strument and the string player will soon 
learn to place the finger in the exact posi¬ 
tion upon the string so as to secure the 
desired pitch for any given tone. The play¬ 
ing of chorales can be made very beneficial 
but it can never supersede unisonal scale 
practice in gaining these desired requisites. 

Important Fundamentals 

I T IS INDEED a wise director who 
teaches his players to do their own tun¬ 
ing-just as competent professional musi¬ 
cians are required to do. Much time can 
then be saved and far better musical results 
be made possible. 

Since scales and scale elements, together 
with chords and chord elements, constitute 
the fabric of musical design, scalistic and 
broken chord exercises constitute the basis 
of technical development. How then can 
anyone hope to attain any degree of ad¬ 
vanced technical proficiency while neglect- 
(i Continued on Page 2 SS) 

APRIL, 1936 


A Monthly Etude Feature 
of practical value, 
by an eminent 



For Piano Teachers and Students 

By Dr. John Thompson 


Analysis of Piano Music 
appearing in 
the Music Section 
of this Issue 

By Irene Rodgers 

The twinkling toes of La Ballerina dance 
through this charming number like an 
April breeze through budding trees. The 
tempo, character and general atmosphere 
of the piece are cleverly established in the 
four measure Introduction. All triplet 
figures, at this point and throughout the 
composition should be played so as literally 
to sparkle. Sluggish triplets would be 
ruinous and suggestive of anything save 
the glancing, graceful movements of the 
delectable Ballerina. 

Staccato notes followed by sostenuto are 
an important factor in this dance music. 
Treatment is clearly marked and signs are 
to be followed punctiliously. The pedal 
too is most important and should be used 
strictly as indicated. 

The Second Theme in G major is quieter 
in mood although the tempo does not vary 

In the Trio section—B-flat major—the 
melody lies with the inner voices played by 
the right hand for the first' four measures 
and continuing in the bass for four meas¬ 
ures. This alternation persists throughout 
the section. Play this theme with full rich 
tone and plenty of resonance. 

Through her melodious pen Miss Rodgers 
has contributed much of value in the piano 
educational field. This number, recently 
published, should attract the attention of 
many new friends to the work of this popu¬ 
lar young composer. 

it is written in twelve-eight time. Learn 
it first counting twelve to the measure, one 
count to each eighth note; later it is ad¬ 
visable to count four to the measure—one 
count to each dotted quarter. Observe the 
many slurs in evidence in the middle section 
and follow the dynamic markings which 
range from pianissimo to fortissimo. 

The third section in F major is taken at 
the same tempo as the first theme. Again 
the slurs are important as are the accented 
and sustained notes of the tenor played by 
the left hand. 

By Mrs. H. H. A. Beach 

Impressionistic in character this compo¬ 
sition demands most careful tonal treat¬ 
ment. More, it assumes a certain sense of 
tonal values on the part of the performer. 

Play it at very deliberate tempo —Grave 
—and let a certain religious air pervade its 
measures. Preserve a strict legato in the 
opening phrases and let the tone be thin 
but resonant. Due importance should be 
given the moving voices heard against 
the sustained octaves of the right hand. 

In a composition of this kind it is prac¬ 
tically impossible to give adequate pedal 
markings and the composer has wisely left 
the use of the pedal to the discretion of the 
individual performer who will be governed, 
naturally, by his or her own particular 
quality of tone. Mystery and awe should 
form a mental backdrop for the perform¬ 
ance of this music. 

At measure 38 it is essential that the 

bass note A on the lower staff be caught 
in the sustaining (middle) pedal and he 
to the end. This procedure in no way in¬ 
terferes with the free use of the damper 
(right) pedal which may be used inde¬ 
pendently as required. 

Play all chords with pressure touch using 
as little percussion as possible. Use extra 
weight on notes to be themadized. 

Keep this fine number in mind for use in 
nmoratns featuring American com- 

By J. Haydn 

Here is a number which should be placed 
high on the list of ideal teaching pieces. 
Here we have Papa Haydn in one of his 
most intimate and characteristic moods, and 
few of his compositions will serve to intro¬ 
duce the works of the master to a pupil so 
well and graciously as this Allegretto. As 
preparation for the Haydn sonatas for piano 
this work is ideal. 

Play the opening melody with sparkling 
spontaneity and great simplicity. 

Simplicity is the very life and keynote of 
this artless tune from the tireless pen of 

At measure 9 the melody, continuing in 
the tenor voice is played by the left hand 
while the right supplies a rolling arpeggio 
accompaniment up and down the keyboard. 
This position is reversed at measure 13 
where the soprano carries the theme while 
the left hand plays the arpeggio accompani- 

By L. M. Gottschalk 

Louis M. Gottschalk was an American 
who achieved world wide fame as pianist 
and as composer. He was not a “great” 
artist in the accepted sense of the term, 
since his work has no connection with the 
school of classic music, but he brought 
pleasure and entertainment to many thou¬ 
sands of music loving people. His tours of 
North America, South America and Europe 
Were so extensive as to be without prece¬ 
dent and his compositions achieved tre¬ 
mendous popularity in his day. Gottschalk’s 
pieces are seldom heard nowadays, but 
there are a few favorites that show unusual 
vitality and refuse to be forgotten. Among 
these is the Orfa Grande Polka in this issue 
of The Etude, which is said to have been 
named for a young lady whom the composer 

The polka is a dance of Bohemian origin 
and was invented according to tradition by 
a girl of the servant class. The music was 
taken down by a local musician and the 
dance was first known under the name of 
“Nimra” from the words of an accompany¬ 
ing song. It became popular almost at 
once. After its appearance in Prague it be¬ 
came known under its new name of Polka. 

The edition selected for presentation by 
The Etude is clearly marked and care¬ 
fully edited. Follow the text closely and 
the result will be a piece with sharply de¬ 
fined dance rhythm, sparkling with gaiety. 

By George Hamer 

If one has agile fingers, dynamic control 
and plenty of imagination here is a piano 
fancy which should please. The first sec¬ 
tion is played Andante, the grace note 
groups and figurations being quite evidently 
intended to reflect the title. Play second 
section considerably faster—about 108 to 
the quarter—and take note of the fact that 


A clear, singing tone for the melody and 
clean linger legato for the figurations are 
necessary in playing this delightful Alle- 
gretto in A major. 

Whatever the reason may be, this com¬ 
position is not so well known as it should 
be among piano teachers. The Etude now 
makes it possible for many thousands of 
teachers and students to become familiar 
with its merits. Numerous studios should 
re-echo to its strains in consequence during 
the coming year. 

By C. P. E. Bach 

Phillip Emanuel Bach was the third son 
of the illustrious J. S. Bach. 

He entered Law School at the age of 
seventeen but the traditions of his family 
practically dictated a musical career for 

He lived in that glamorous age when 
powdered wigs and knickerbockers were 
coming into vogue and when the popular 
taste in art was in flux. His works clearly 
show the transition which was taking place 
from the style of Handel and J. S. Bach 
to that smoothness and elegance which we 
associate with Haydn and Mozart For 
this reason Phillip Emanuel Bach is looked 
upon as an important link between tvro 
schools and two eras. 

Solfeggielto means “little Solfeggio.” 
This title was conferred no doubt because 
of the florid style of tire piece which sug¬ 
gests an Italian vocal exercise of the eight¬ 
eenth century. 

This music will be found most effective 
when played brilliantly with elegance and 
style. Use well articulated finger Ugato 
throughout. It is well to remember that 
the piece was originally written tor the 
clavichord, the construction of which was 
conducive to a percussive quality of tone. 

Use the pedal sparingly it at all. Make 
the most of crescendos and diminuendos as 
they appear. A word of warning is in order 
—unless played with color this brilliant 
piece will sound very much like a so-called 
“five-finger exercise.” 

By Louise E. Stairs 

Louise Stairs presents this month a melo¬ 
dious little first grade piece calling for two 
hand positions in the right and one extended 
position in the left. The quarter note is 
the smallest value used. Written in the key 
of F major the piece stresses melody play¬ 
ing in the right hand and broken chord ac¬ 
companiment in the left hand. 

By Wallace Johnson 

In this second grade march the melody 
alternates between the left hand and the 
right. It provides a good study in fore¬ 
arm attack, since many chords are in evi¬ 
dence throughout its measures. The tempo 
is strict. Play all accents precisely as 
marked. When in doubt— don’t pedal! 

By Donald Claflin 

A succession of fourths which we Occi¬ 
dentals associate in our minds with Oriental 
music are much in evidence in Mr. Claflin * 
China Boy. 

The left hand plays staccato throughewj 
while the right alternates staccato wn® 
legato. The little piece is written in alia 
breve time, which means two counts to the 
measure and one count to the half note. 

(Con tin tied on Page 258) 



The Teachers’ Round 

Conducted Monthly by 



7s [o question will be answered in THE ETUDE unless accompanied by the full name' 
and address of the inquirer. Only initials, or pseudonym given, will be published. 

A Difficult Beginner 

I have had for ten months a puDil 
aged eighty After finishing Johi 


nth d 

culty, she started his - 

Her progress is terribly slow ; but I 
have just discovered what I think is 
her trouble. She was playing the 
Little Fairy Walts by Streabbog. The 
second part is in the key of G major. 
She started correctly but soon forgot 
F sharp. I asked if the F-natural did 
not sound wrong ; she answered that 
it sounded "all right.” I tried the C 
major chord ; and, after playing it 
correctly several times, I struck a 
discord that I thought surely she 
would detect. When asked which 
chord sounded the most pleasing to 
the ear, she said they both sounded 
all right. 

She has been drilled in notes and 
their position ; and yet she does not 
seem to understand the difference in 
playing the first line E and the 
fourth space E. Her mother is 
talented and tries to help her between 
lesson periods; but neither of us 
feels any progress is being made. 

Does this mean that she needs ear 
training? H so, how shall I proceed? 

—E. B., Kentucky. 

How often, alas, do we music teachers 
suffer from this student ailment! But for¬ 
tunately there are few cases that are hopeless. 
If (as rarely occurs) your eight-year-old 
is completely atonal, then there is noth¬ 
ing to do. If she can recognize the differ¬ 
ence between Suwannee River and the Star 
Spangled Banner (without, of course, hear¬ 
ing the words as the tunes are played), then 
there is still hope. And if she can actually 
sing these songs, approximately on pitch, 
then she is positively musical! Have you 
tested her? 

In either of these last two cases you must 
grit your teeth and gird yourself for a 
fierce battle! For she is probably lazy and 
careless, and never has been taught to 
listen. She should be compelled to con¬ 
centrate musically. To do this, get her to 
lift her voice in song. Play a tone (middle 
G, for instance) and ask her to imitate it. 
If she refuses, sing it yourself and ask her 
to sing it along with you. Make a game of 
it; you are the radio broadcasting station, 
and she is the receiving set. At first always 
sing the same long tone, which she instantly 
“receives.” Explain that this radio set is 
a strange one, that is liable to burst out 
and interrupt the lesson at any time; then, 
when she is least expecting it, suddenly play 
the G, singing “Bah,” “Mooh,” or a suc¬ 
cession of rhythmic “Ah’s” or “Da’s” to it 
(she, of course, always imitating). Alter¬ 
nate by letting her be the sending set and 
you the receiver. Use this surprise element 
often in your teaching, to overcome self- 
consciousness or lack of concentration. 
Praise her warmly, or even offer a small 
prize for a reward (a piece or two of de¬ 
licious candy will probably get any tone 
you want out of her!) 

Now play two successive tones, not 
nearer than a sixth. Have her sing these; 
and, if the second tone ascends or descends, 
have her indicate this as she sings, with 
her head or her arm going up or down. Let 
her also imitate short musical motives or 
tunes—never longer than one or two meas¬ 
ures. After she has sung them several times, 
show her the first note of the tune on the 
piano, and have her “pick out” the rest. 
Never let her play a single melody at any 
time, without insisting upon her singing it 
first, or as she plays it. 

She may be only stubborn (so many of 
them are!) and probably enjoys exasperat¬ 
ing you and her mother. Treatment like the 
above will make her forget this attitude. If 
she will not sing the tone you play for her, 
let her select a tone on the piano, imitating 
it; or, if she cannot do this, let her sing 
any long tone she can, on the syllable 
“Ah,” while you find it on the piano. Once 
you have found her tone (have her hang 
on to it!), you can work ascending and 
descending from it. Make tremendous skips 
up or down at first, and have her indicate 
the direction. Steer clear of octave skips 
for awhile. Gradually narrow the intervals 
—until you get as close as possible to the 
original tone. Insist constantly that she 
sing this first tone every time you play it. 
Do not spend more than a minute or two 
at a time in doing this. 

Naturally, you will be sympathetic, but 
at the same time be firm, and occasionally 

The educational coddling of children 
nowadays is a scandal; and nowhere do the 
slipshod results show so definitely as in 
music, which, above all else, demands quick, 
clear, concentrated thinking. 


Please give me some Ideas for a 
piano teacher to use for advertising 
in order to gain a larger class. Do 
yon think circular letters are satis¬ 
factory ? 

I would like to get more people In¬ 
terested in piano study. I give music 
hours which the children enjoy and 
have been having very interesting 
programs. Only a few mothers will 
attend; and they are delighted with 
our programs. Other mothers like to 
have their children take part hut do 

think it worth v 

e themselve 

Do y 

_to continue 

rs?—M. E. T„ " 

> giv- 

Circular letters for some have proven 
useless, I think, for bringing in new pupils; 
but I cannot understand why your very 

successful “music hours” do not boom and 
boost your class. Do not give these up, but 
try to make them even more vital. Do you 
ever give little musical plays, either orig¬ 
inal ones written by yourself and pupils, or 
fascinating playlets which are easily ob¬ 
tained, and which your publisher will gladly 
recommend ? 

Get the whole-hearted cooperation of the 
children, too, ■ and prod them to insisting 
that their parents come to the music hours 
(they will come if the youngsters demand 
it). And try to devise programs which will 
interest the adults as well as the young 
people. Nothing is more frightening to me 
than to see a list of twenty to fifty pieces 
to be “performed” at a children’s recital; 
and I might add, nothing is more appalling¬ 
ly boring to listen to. It is not enough to 
intersperse the solos with duets, two-piano 
pieces, or solos by singers and violinists. 
You must plan something original and fas¬ 
cinating each time. 

For instance, do you yourself ever play 
and talk entertainingly at these affairs? 
Music teachers are gravely mistaken when 
they think they can stagger along in their 
work without practicing or playing. Music 
is for the ears; you must be able to play 
the pieces your pupils study. And when you 
play these for them, you should be such a 
fine aural and visual model that they will 
be inspired to work hard to imitate you. 
You ought to play at least one short piece 
for each student at every lesson, and more 
at the music hours. They will tell their 
friends how beautifully you play, their 
parents will speak enthusiastically to others 
about your lovely touch and authoritative 
style; and your reputation will grow by 

It is not necessary to play difficult 
or “showy” music; simple pieces, with 
gracious melody or rich chords; or bright 
and crisp old or new dances, are loved by 


This is a picture of the great musical antiquarian, Arnold Dolmetsch, playing 
a Crwth (pronounced krooth). This is a kind of Welsh harp which dates back 
to the eleventh century, when it was used by the bards to accompany their 
songs. Its origin may be traced back to 1000 B. C. when the Hittites had an 
instrument with similar characteristics. 

Rightly or not it is true that more new 
pupils come at first as a result of one’s play¬ 
ing than through any other means. But ever¬ 
lasting practice, constant study and unre¬ 
mitting work are the price one has to pay 

At any rate this zealous application will 
keep you from “rusting out.” Better leave 
this “vale of tears” a few years earlier and 
have people say: “What an inspiration she 
was! What a dynamic, thrilling person! 
What a wonderful influence she had on the 
young musical generation of her town!” 
rather than: “Poor Dear! she somehow lost 
her enthusiasm and grip on her music and 
teaching; her class dwindled and died; and 
now at last she is gone too. Requiescat in 

Do you know the little “Guide to New 
Teachers on Teaching the Piano”? (The 
publishers of The Etude will gladly send 
it to you upon request.) Do not scorn it, for 
we all are “new” teachers; every day, every 
lesson, every student is eternally new; and 
the moment we forget this truth we are old 
and lost. 

This “Guide to New Teachers” is chock 
full of ideas for you. Send for it. 

Strangely enough, just as I was answer¬ 
ing your question, came a letter in the 
morning’s mail from an enthusiastic teacher 
who has as many ideas in one week for im¬ 
proving the quality of her teaching and 
class as a dozen other teachers have in a 
year. She has sixty-five students, is the de¬ 
voted mother of two splendid children, runs 
her home, and finds time to practice and 
play many solo and two-piano concerts 
every year. But listen to a part of her let- 

“My pupils have gone completely 
‘ETUDE;’ they love your articles, and 
we have actual lessons using them. 

“Did I tell you that I have thirty-five 
Cooke ‘Young Folks Picture Histories’ 
going? Four children—eight to nine years 
old—are ready for an examination. They 
discuss the first four chapters of the book, 
and, to illustrate them, create an Indian 
tune and play an easy opera tune. They give 
stories about ten composers and play one 
little piece of each. Then they choose five 
of the contemporary and modern composers 
in the back of the book, look up a few 
points about them and remember them. 
They also recite on fifteen symphony or¬ 
chestra instruments, and play the question- 
and-answer game in the back of the book. 
They do really marvelous work! 

“The ‘exam’ takes thirty to forty min¬ 
utes, and it is most entertaining. I have al¬ 
ready had several calls from clubs and 
schools to present these children. 

“We have tried, in class work, to use a 
different piece by each composer, for the 
various children. One, for instance, plays 
Schumann’s Jolly Farmer; another, his 
Children’s March, or Lullaby, and so on. 
It was difficult to find a variety from each 
composer, but we managed! I am thrilled 
over this; and it is rather new for me. We 
give the successful students a grand-looking 
Honor Roll with a Gold Seal.” 

Music brings pleasure to probably more 
people than does any other one of the arts. 

—(President Coolidge.) 

APRIL, 1936 


Important “Musts" for the Piano Teacher 

An Interview With the Eminent French Pianist-Composer 

W HAT IS a good teacher? How is 
a good teacher to be judged? Can 
a good teacher be judged by his 

Naturally he must be judged by his 
pupils; but it is necessary to consider what 
he can do with a poor pupil, not merely 
what he accomplishes with a good one. 
For not even a mediocre teacher can wholly 
spoil a really musical pupil. 

Teacher or Virtuoso 

T O BE a good teacher is very difficult; 

and there are few of them. The good 
teacher will take more interest in his pupil 
than in himself. But the virtuoso thinks 
of himself rather than of his pupil. 

There was Chopin, for example. Chopin 
was an artist rather than a teacher, despite 
the fact that he taught. But Georges 
Mathias, pupil of Chopin, was the greatest 
teacher of France. From Chopin, Mathias 
learned beauty of tone, clearness of technic, 
exquisite finish of detail. Fifty repetitions 
of an arpeggio were not too many for 
Mathias, if they were needed to produce 
evenness of tone. And it was Mathias who 
knew how to impart, as a teacher, those 
beautiful and musical qualities which he 
had learned from Chopin the artist. 

Saint-Saens, the great French musician, 
was a genius who combined in rare pro¬ 
portions the qualities of both artist and 
teacher. The ideas of Saint-Saens were 
what inspired me to seek new ideas for my 
own pupils. 

Teacher Must Discover and Invent 

F OR THAT IS, indeed, the role and the 
duty of the teacher. He must discover 
ways to help the pupil. Does he aspire to 
teach merely interpretation, and not to 
burden himself with the “how” of the ability 
to interpret ? With technical problems ? 
But how can technic be separated from in¬ 
terpretation, when one - is playing master 
works? Does not the delivery of a phrase 
depend on the ability to control the 
muscles ? Must not the two interdependent 
subjects be studied and developed together? 
No, if some difficulty of technic confronts 
the pupil, the teacher must not say to him, 
“Find out for yourself how to do it 1” He 
must assist the pupil in finding out how. 

Each Pupil Requires Different 

B UT WHATEVER a teacher does or 
does not do, he should bear in mind 
that every pupil requires different and in¬ 
dividual advice. Therefore much depends 
on the manner of thinking, on the quick 
mind and the power of observation in the 
teacher. There are hundreds of pupils— 
good, better and worse! No one system can 
possibly apply to all pupils. The task of 
the teacher is to discover the special fault 
or weakness of each pupil and then to de¬ 
vise exercises to overcome that fault or 
weakness. He must be ingenious, for often 
he will find that he requires many devices 
for a single pupil, as well as a few devices 
for many pupils. 

For instance, there are hands which need 
to practice double notes. Others need 
octaves; others, scales; others, arpeggios. 
Some need to play arpeggios with unusual, 
varied intervals. The drill in finding with 
the brain the new intervals, the unaccus¬ 
tomed stretches, and playing them with 
varied accents, is very important for cer¬ 
tain types of students. Double thirds and 


Ssidor Philipp 

Secured expressly for The Etude Music Magazine 
By Florence Leonard 

sixths make a similar demand on his think¬ 
ing powers. Small hands need carefully 
chosen material, especially in the case of 
exercises using one or more sustained notes. 
Some hands require stretching exercises, 
some do not. (All hands will be benefited 
by some form of practice with many differ¬ 
ent rhythms and accents; which has been 
long a characteristic device of mine for 
overcoming difficulties.) 

But if the fitting exercise is discovered, 
then it often happens that after the student 
has practiced for some minutes, the diffi¬ 
culty has vanished, is no longer there! 

Practice With the Brain 

B UT SUCH EXERCISES, and indeed 
all material for practice, must be car¬ 
ried out more with the brain than with the 
fingers. And this idea, it is evident, must 
be inculcated by the teacher. It is often 
true that he must even show the indolent 
and talented pupil how to use his brain in 

Another duty of the teacher is to direct 

the work of the pupil. A student requires 
disciplining; and cannot be allowed to 
follow merely his own inclinations. His 
work must be graded, if he is to make 
progress. He cannot skip from one grade 
to another, without taking the intermediate 
steps—all of them. His ascent to the 
heights of art must be slow and gradual. 
He cannot play Beethoven before dementi, 
Chopin before Czerny, Debussy before 
Mozart and Mendelssohn. 

The good teacher also must be constantly 
giving examples by his own playing of 
illustrations of what he requires from the 
student. One cannot teach well and vividly 
without continually illustrating, showing the 
pupil cause and effect, technic and tone. 

Security All-important 

T HE GOOD TEACHER always bears 
in mind the ideals of the artist. What 
is the dream of all pianists? To find cer¬ 
tainty and security of fingers! If they 
have not security, they have nothing. 

ill. 1 .UUUK I Jtlll.lPi' 

M. Philipp has been for the better part of his life the lend!* „ p.„( 

Playing at the Paris Conservatoire, during which neriod he h Pr ,°l es f or °f Piano for 
He is a man of broad human understanding, whose many kiL nel ? ht man J virtuo, 
to numerous pupils Americans have heard him severaltimes en< ™ re f l hi 

his three recent visits to our country. umes over the air,” durir 

Two great helps toward security may be 

First, slow practice, with thought given 
to every note. There must be a definite 
hold on each note until the player is abso¬ 
lutely sure of it. This manner of practic¬ 
ing must be the foundation. 

Second (and this has come to me of late) 
the pianist must have the technic of the 
entire keyboard. Whether he wishes to 
play a Mazurka of Chopin or a Song Win,, 
out Words by Mendelssohn; he must have 
the technic of the whole keyboard; he must 
be in command of it. 

Further, the player must feel relaxation. 
Arms, shoulder and body must be free. 
This relaxation is a matter of will and self- 
control . If the pianist lias self-control, he 
can relax. But if he holds the arms and the 
whole body tense, he will not have the self- 
control which can master every muscle. To 
acquire this condition he should practice 
very slowly, with the mind centered on ease 
in the muscles. 

Again, this type of practicing is the prac¬ 
ticing with concentration, with brain, which 
must be continually demanded of the pupil. 
For it is more useful to practice one half- 
hour with concentration than eight hours 
without it. 

Fingering Chosen by Teacher 

S TILL ANOTHER aid to security is the 
right choice of fingering; and here 
again the teacher must guide the pupil. 
Consider the “Etudes" of Chopin, in the 
many editions. How many ways of finger¬ 
ing these editions present! Each editor 
seems to be trying to invent a new finger¬ 
ing. But the fingering of Chopin, himself 
is always the best. That is found in the 
Kullak and Mikuli editions. For the classic 
compositions, the simplest fingering is al¬ 
ways the best. 

Dynamics Indispensable 

W HAT SUBJECT is more important 
for a teacher to develop and to illus¬ 
trate than touch, with its variations in 
dynamics? If the tone is to be forte or 
meszoforte, it must be on the bed of the 
key. Piano tone I make on the surface. 
And I grade the depth of the key depression 
according to the amount of tone I wish. I 
must follow the resistance of the key. 

SS ff_^ 

is Deep Deep Deep 

To make these graduations, the tone must 
be mentally prepared. In a second the 
amount of weight and tone must be planned 
For a light tone I “play off the key." 
portamento I play “from high," *th 
mental preparation, for the tone must I* 
heavy, but the weight not so. 

Follow the Composer 
v V the various graduations of toneBut, 
obviously, where the composer has indicated 
them. And yet conductors, as well * 
virtuosi, commit the crime against musK 
of playing what they choose instead of wW 
the composer chose. If So-and-So plaj*“ 
forte a passage which Beethoven marked 
piano, is that any reason why somebody 
else should copy him and change the sen* 
of the passage ? For that is exactly wrte 1 
happens when the composer's marks at* 
disregarded. No I The artist plays. w’ ,iI 
heart and soul, what the composer & 
written t 

the etvds 



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Copyright 1936 by Theodore Presser Go. % From here go b.ack to $5 and play to A; then play Trio. 
APRIL 1936 

British Copyright secured 

The continued and persistent s 
to use it. Orfa, we are tojd, was the nam 

ORFA GRANDB t POLKA^ that manyofourrea derswouid]i k e 

jmand for this concert poika of GottschaJk m 

r ttllS COIluex i . , r.„jp A 

; of Gottschaik’s young Jady friends. 


the studs 


A fine fanciful piano picture which your fingers must paint with pastel colors. At the same time the piece provides for brilliancy and 

the studs 


Copyright MCMXXIV by The John Church Company 
APRIL 1936 

International Copyright 


Allegretto moderate ARTHUR TRAVES GRANFIELD, Op. 16, No.3 

Copyright MCMXXVII by Oliver Ditson Company 

International Copyright secured 
THE etude 



Arr. by Olga Alanoff 


In response to numerous requests,the Etude for the first time presents a famous composition most skilfully^ndeffectivelyJ* nlllTsmTCmS 
M-Major m- minor S- Dominant Seventh n-Out Bellows V'ln Bellows W.B.- Forfinger numbers underiinedwith ]F]-FuiJ Register (open switch) 

d- Diminished a- Augmented Whole Bellows U.H.-UpperHaJf of ■ dash (3J,the finger is to be placed gj. sin g] e Register (closed switch) 

Bellows L.H.-Lower Half ofBeJIows on the Counter Bass (1st row.) 

Finger numbersnot underlined 

are for the Fundamental Bass piu mosso 

Andante con espressione 5 (2nd) and Chord rows. ^ __^ 


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Copyright 1936 by The John Church Company 
APRIL 1936 

International Copyright 



heard than it really deserves but it makes an extremely 

This delightful movement from the pen of the sprightly Josef Haydn is Jess frequen y „ 

graceful piece for the piano. The theme has been used in a familiar hymn. Gra e .- J N 




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Karl Philipp Emanuel Bach was considered by some as a far greater pedagog than his great father. In many ways he was the pioneer of modern 
pianoforte playing. After a little practice the plastic character of this piece is such that it holds together like a mosaic and when well learned it goes 

APRIL 1936 




Copyright MCMXIII by Oliver Ditson Company International Copyright secured 

APRIL 1936 







APRIL 1936 






Bl> tenor saxophone 




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my biddy LOUISE E. STAIRS 

like to go a - 

long, For 

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when she comes a - 


round a - gain, She 

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poco rit 
proud-ly sings a song. 


Copyright 1935 by Theodore Presser Co. 

British Copyright secured 



Grade l. Moderato M.M. J=96 ROBERT NOLAN KERR 

A _ 1 3 


1 2_ 

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soft and sweet and 


Hear the 


sing-ing as they 





2 3 

Grade2 - Allegretto M.M.J = 144 JAMES H. ROGERS 

Grade 2£. Allegretto M. M.J =96 




Copyright 1935 by Theodore Presser Co. 


Grade2 . . A. LOUIS SCARMOLIN, Op.86,No.4 

2 3 


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Those who base their 
choice upon a knowledge 
of true worth, rather than 
on a foundation of un¬ 
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possessions. Many such 
people are Lester owners. 

IesterPmo Co. 




the world's " 

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7.S Music, Operas, of BACH, WAGNER, 
I ;AV etc- Mail Orders sent anywhere. Com- 
LIMJpIete Catalog “I” on request. Also 


111 E. 14th St.. New York City 




by Irving Kolodin 

The complete story of the Metropoli¬ 
tan Opera from 1883 to 1935 and the 
retirement of Gatti-Casazza. In addi¬ 
tion to the repertory, considered 
chronologically and comparatively, 
chapters are devoted to Toscanini, 
Caruso and others, with an appendix 
giving casts of premi eres, revivals, im¬ 
portant debuts, etc. Illus. $3.75. 
Ready shortly. Enter your order now. 

• Other Books for Music Lovers • 
GLUCK by Martin Cooper 

With a Preface by Edward J. 

Dent. S.9-7S; CLAUDE DE¬ 
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by Lion Valias. $ 8 . 00 ; WIL¬ 
LIAM BYRD by E. H. Fel¬ 
lows. $ 5 . 00 . 


114 Fifth Avenue, New York 

When Every Gentleman Was a Musician 

(Continued from Page 211) 

vengeance ef both her successor, Anne 
Boleyn, and Henry. Last year More was 
canonized by Pope Pius XI. 

He was unfortunate enough to take as a 
second wife a shrew. However, he tried to 
tame her by teaching her to play the lute. 
Sir Isaac D’Israeli, the antiquary, writes 
quaintly about this: “Sir Thomas More 
was united to a woman of the harshest 
temper and most sordid manners. To 
soften the moroseness of her disposition, 
he persuaded her to play on the lute and 
viol and other instruments every day. But 
whether it was that she had no ear for 

aside the tapestry and entered the room, 
whereupon the Queen stopped playing, got 
up and came forward, pretending to strike 
him, and saying that she never played in 
front of people, but only for her own amuse¬ 
ment and to shun melancholy. And then 
she asked him whether she or Mary, Queen 
of Scots, played the better. 

Queen Elizabeth also played the lute. 
There are two records of this. In 1565, 
Zwetkovich wrote to the Emperor, Maxi¬ 
milian, about the Queen: “She also played 
very beautifully upon the lute and vir¬ 
ginals.” And, in 1590, Baron Breuner, 


This unusual example of music printing is from “The First Booke of Songes or 
Ayres” by John Dotvland, published in 1597. Notice how the music is printed 
to accommodate the musicians while seated around a table. 

music, she herself never became harmoni¬ 
ous as the instrument she touched.” 

And “Musical Bess” 

Elizabeth was quite as striking as that 
of her father, Henry VIII, and her mother, 
the arrogant and ill-tempered Anne Boleyn. 
From her father she unquestionably in¬ 
herited much musical talent. She is known 
to have been a gifted performer upon the 
virginals, which many people believe were 
named after her, “The Virgin Queen.” 
However, this is not true, because music 
now preserved in the British Royal manu¬ 
scripts reveals that virginals existed before 
Elizabeth was born. (See Royal mss., Ap¬ 
pendix 58): Elizabeth could perform also 
on an instrument known as the “poliphant.” 
This was strung with brass wire. In 1578 
two of her compositions (“two little anthems 
or things in metre of hir majestie”) were 
printed. With the destruction of the 
Spanish Armada in 1588, she took it upon 
herself to write a poem, “Loke down and 
bowe downe Thine eare, O Lorde,” which 
was sung before her at a State Service at 
St. Paul’s. Possibly the music also was 
hers. Her musical establishment cost £1,576 
annually, a very considerable amount for 
those days. • 

I like the story which Sir James Mel¬ 
ville tells about Queen Elizabeth. As Am¬ 
bassador from the Court of Mary, Queen 
of Scots, he was anxious to hear her, and 
so, he tells us, one evening a courtier drew 
him up to a quiet gallery where he was 
able to hear the Queen playing on her 
virginals. He stood awhile, listening to 
her playing excellently well. Then he pulled 

Chamberlain to the Prince, Archduke 
Charles of Austria, writing to the Emperor, 
Ferdinand: “On the 10th of June, in the 
evening after supper, to refresh myself, I 
took a boat on the river, and the Queen 
came there too, recognized me, and sum¬ 
moned me. She spoke a long while to me, 
and then invited me to leave my boat and 
take a seat in that of the Treasurer. She 
then had her boat drawn alongside and 
played upon the lute.” 

Music at Table 

N THOSE DAYS it was the custom for 
glee or madrigal singers to sit vis a vis 
at a table, when singing certain composi¬ 
tions. What is therefore more natural than 
that the music should be printed to accom¬ 
modate this arrangement? That is, one 
copy was used for all four singers—all four 
parts being printed around the edge of the 
page, so that each singer, as he sat at the 
table, had a part in front of him. 

In the songs the music was perfectly 
fitted to the words. They never thought 
of the words of a song as a mere peg on 
which to hang their music. Generally, it 
is slight and full of melody and color, suited 
in every way to the flexible lyric poetry, 
so that one gets equal joy from both. The 
music always helps the mood and often 
the grace and humor of the poetry. Very 
often, too, composers wrote their own 
lyrics. Campion, for example, not only was 
a fine musician but also was undoubtedly 
one of the finest of our English lyric poets. 

Just a word or two about other instru¬ 
ments of this period. First, the viols were 
the bowed instruments. Then there were 
(Continued on Page 258) 



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The "Regent" is full 5' 6’, the ideal size 
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Dept. ET, 630 Fifth Avenue, New York 
Circle 6-3667 

APRIL, 1936 



Edited for April by Eminent Specialists 

, , “t Inzer’s Etude” complete in itself. 

It is the ambition of The Etude to make this department a 8 

Headtones and Mixtures 

By Bernice Hall 

T O BUILD anything and to build it 
intelligently and well, from a house 
to a cake, or a singing voice, the 
component parts must be studied and under¬ 
stood separately until each single unit, by 
itself, is perfectly known for its use and 
constructive qualities. To build well or to 
sing well the builder or singer must be 
as vitally interested in the single part and 
as deeply charmed by its single nature as 
in the completed structure or voice. 

All structure building in the voice has 
to be taken from the inside, which means 
carried out from the imagination on word 
pictures into reality, which, to the singer, 
is recognized and thoroughly understood 
sound. And, like all first steps in any art, 
any word name that appeals keenly to the 
imagination is the most desirable mode of 
instruction and produces the quickest and 
most pleasurable results. In artist and 
teacher, keenness of imagination goes far 
toward being the measure of their under¬ 
standing and success. 

“Nasal” Not Noxious 

earnest voice student not to back 
away in fear of the word, nasal. All sing¬ 
ing is some part or color-mixture of open 
nasal resonance. 

Having studied the position and nature 
of the bright, hard vowels, a and ee, and 
the influence of chest resonance and head 
dilation upon their color and position, we 
will picture their color and position in re¬ 
lation to the third bright or hard vowel— 
i or hi (as in the word high.) 

A is the most naturally nasal and has its 
position highest under the nose. Ee must 
borrow bright resonance from a and has 
its particular position close to the front 
teeth. The third vowel—i has no definite 
position point but belongs to a and ee, and 
must be imagined to be the highest in po¬ 
sition of these three speaking voice vowels. 
From now on we will add the aspirate h 
to the vowel i as it makes it easier of pro¬ 
nunciation and helps very greatly in the 

We will then describe hi as higher in 
position and color than a and ee and call it 
a swinging or hanging vowel. It is a 
smooth, clear vowel and would be thin and 
sharp, colorless and uninteresting did it not 
borrow resonance-paint from its two rela¬ 
tive vowels, a and ee. To add resonance- 
color and quality, the hi must be pressed 
low on the speaking-voice resonance by 
thinking the breath-weight down upon the 
chest until the right amount of resonance 
is added to match the color of the a and ee. 

A, ee, and hi should be all on the same 
level of speaking-voice resonance, breath- 
weight, and color, so that they carry the 
same quality and volume in all words con¬ 
taining them. To gain the first idea of 
matching the hi with the wider resonance 
of ee, we begin in the most favorable loca¬ 
tion, the middle of the voice, where more 
of the chest resonance and pressure is easily 


Ee^Hi Ee-Hi Ee-Hi Ee-Hi 

On this two-color exercise, sing a bright, 
pointed ee (long sound as in thee), as low 
on the speaking voice resonance as possible. 

Now bridge it over very slowly to the 
second tone on which hi is to be sung to 
match as nearly as possible the ee in low 
resonance, color-width, and volume. 

Be sure to keep the hi as near to the very 
forward enunciation placement of the ee as 

Now that you have used the bright e to 
point the hi in color, and can raise it in 
position, study the soft, dark e exercise on 
the vowel syllable Wh-oo. 

Ex. 2 

Wh-oo - e 

Sing, on the medium tones of the voice, 
each different color separately and then to¬ 
gether, sustaining the first slowly over to 
the second tone. 

Dilation Table 

Singer’s yawn.Low color 

Stretch over the tone.Depth 

Fluffy, dark color.Sympathy 

Width in the nostrils.Richness 

Dignity of tone.Velvet 

Maturity of tone.Softness 

Be very careful that the breath release 
is greater with each tone that moves higher 
up the scale. This exercise will fix in the 
mind more clearly the opposite position and 
color between the bright and the dark e. 
Also it will make more definite the absolute 
necessity of leaving the breath flow more 
free to do its own work in ascending the 

The dark vowel, Wh-oo, through its dila¬ 
tion position lifts the dark e higher into the 
head position, beginning in the middle voice 
where there is no strain, and thus prepares 
the way for scales and exercises on the 
vowel sound hi. 

Frontal Resonance 

A S THE FOLLOWING single tones, 
. and, further on, the broken chord ex¬ 
ercises, are sung higher, much forward 
hanging pressure of the enunciation of the 
hi vowel sound is felt high up under the 
nose and against the forehead. 

These high tones sung on the hi have 
the sensation of clinging against the bony 
wall of the nose and forehead, and being 
held there only by their own pressure, as 
though the air were being constantly poured 
against this bony wall like the stream of 
a hose on a garden wall. 

We do not ourselves sing our high tones, 
we give them perfect freedom and they sail 
on their own pressure, being made elastic 
and strong through their resistance on the 
speaking voice resonance. Or, we will say 
that we speak through the freedom of the 
breath flow in the upper tones. 

Practice these three single tones 
vowel sound, hi as in “high. 

Study them slowly and carefully, for the 
understanding of the combination of dila¬ 
tion form and low resonance mixture. 

Without losing the low resonance mix¬ 
ture as the tone’s foundation, raise these 
tones as high as possible into the dilation 
form in preparation for the next exercise 
in headtones. 


Sing as many of the tones in this chart 
as can be done easily, being careful that 
they swing away from the lower resonance 
far enough to allow them full freedom on 
the flowing breath without entirely losing 
their low-resonance firmness and color. 

Practice each tone by itself as in above 
middle voice exercise, on the same vowel 
sound, hi. 

Sing this exercise beginning with the key 
of C and transposing it up by half steps as 
far as the tones are free, easy and well- 
enunciated on enough low resonance bor¬ 
rowed from the bright cr through the ee. 

However we have found through long 
experience that for some time G above the 
staff is a very healthy stopping place, and 
that tones above this point should be sung 
only rarely, in comparison, until the voice 
grows naturally in power and flexibility 
without effort. This refers of course to 
high voices—sopranos and tenors. For 
other voices the exercises must be trans¬ 
posed correspondingly lower. Contraltos 

D d o?£ SeS WU1 n0t at firSt Carry this abovc 
It is a good plan for the student to add 
his own words to this broken chord ex¬ 
ercise, for the testing of different sounds 
to develop clear enunciation, and for his 
own entertainment. 

Head Dilation 

B E ie?7 GTHAT tWs -Liana,ion „f 
the head voice and of head voice f v 
erases would be incomplete in the students 
mind without a separate talk on head dila 
tion itself, the second half of the lesson is 
devoted to this subject alone. S 

The thorough understanding of head di 
l.«on mging is the „J, 

factor of the whole voice system, in that it 
lifts the whole scale into flexibility of ac¬ 
tion, preserves youthful tone and color, and 
adds many tones to each end of the com¬ 
pass, that would otherwise be missing. It 
protects the voice from strain and far too 
early disintegration. 

The understanding of this point is so nec¬ 
essary to the whole health and life of every 
voice tliat we shall take the liberty of tall- 
ing in word pictures and similes concerning 
it, so that the appeal to the imagination of 
the singer may be more effective and the 
practical working results be sooner ob¬ 

The leading points and different working 
effects of this dilation exercise alone art 
given in their relation to each other in the 
chart forms following, which will prove 
very helpful in understanding the nature 
and extreme benefit oi its process. So far 
in the study of voice this prime factor las 
not been given one third of the special at¬ 
tention necessary to build and preserve a 
correct and beautiful voice scale. 

Amplifying Resonance 

I N STRIKING a tuning fork we set in 
motion a small, insignificant sound. If 
we hold the same fork, in motion, under 
the open base of a spherical resonator of 
nictal substance, we find the fundamental 
tone of the vibrating fork intensified many 
times over, thereby producing a louder and 
richer tone. 

The origin of the vocal tone, the Titra¬ 
tion of the voice-cords alone, if we codd 
hear it, would be a sound very much Ere 
the tuning fork by itself, in volume and 
quality. The bony cavities of the mouth, 
nose and head arc tire same kind of resona¬ 
tors for the rcenforcement of the funda¬ 
mental sound produced at the larynx, as s 
the metal resonator for the reenforcemest 
of the sound made by the tuning fork. 

A contracted muscular interference in the 
mouth or throat will have the same de¬ 
stroying effect on the voice, in v-olume sw 
quality, as would be had by placing a thra 
piece of felt between the tuning fork and 
the resonator. I i we ruin the fork or tlx 
resonator it can be easily replaced, hut the 
voice cannot. And so it is that the path 
must be free for the tone or vibrated a 
column to reach the bony cavities of ® 
nose and head for its reenforcemert « 
quality and volume. .. 

In reading this instruction, keep m 
that we are studying this one essentu' 
point by itself, to get a firm and well under¬ 
stood idea of its very great value in 

The Even Scale 

I N USING the pure beadtene. Wb- 
the exact middle of the voice, we' 
lap tlie head-voice action so there a 
reaches or excessive jumps in 
or down the scale. And when we pa* 
upper tones with the speaking voice 
taken from the lower part cf the two 


overlap the color and hard resonance mate¬ 
rial into the high voice with the same result, 
that we have then no color or resonance 

^IHiigh action comes down to lift the low 
and middle voice, and low color goes up to 
keep the high voice from jumping entirely 
away from its natural foundation, there is 
a natural mixture or overlap of both ex¬ 
treme ends of the voice at its middle, re¬ 
sulting in freedom of action, equal color, 
matching resonance, and even power through 
the complete scale. 

In singing the pure headtone Wh-oo 
(without mixture), we again have two 
paths to consider, color and action. The 
Wh-oo in its position and action is the 
parachute which opens and stretches, and 
saves the voice from falling. We are call¬ 
ing the intense head or nasal dilation a 
parachute in order to make poignant the 
sensation of the singer’s yawn. 

We hope to make this clearer by setting 
down the three stages of understanding and 
realization the singer will gradually pass 
through before he arrives at the complete 
and clear understanding of the sensation 
and complete object of this pure headtone 

DILATION—Vowel sound—Wh-oo, 
represented in three stages as 

1— Parachute; 

2— Singer’s yawn; 

3— Dilation process. 

The singer’s yawn must not be confused 
with the sleepy yawn which spreads back 
to extend the soft palate and pillars, and 
so stretches the throat wide open. This 
sleepy yawn is to be decidedly avoided in 
the singing, process. 

The singer’s yawn is felt closely and di¬ 
rectly under the front teeth, and from there 
upward to the widely distended nostrils, 
and in its completion at the highest point 
in the arch of the mouth, which is the soft 
spot high up under the nose, or the nasal 
floor composed of flexible and very sensitive 

Fix the following position chart firmly 
in your idea and mind. 

Dilation—Very close under front 

Singer’s Yawn—Wide stretch of the 

Position Points—Sensitive spot high 
under nose. Floating, or swinging chin. 
Then there is a particular thought-point 
for the direct and carefully pointed enuncia¬ 
tion of the dark Wh-oo, which is the point 
of the upper lip or straight muscle under 
the nose. To this location the extreme, 
pointed enunciation of the Wh-oo must 
hang or cling. 

The lower jaw must float or swing freely, 
that it may take its natural position from 
the process of the enunciation itself. Do 
not use the hideous fish mouth position for 
the dark, round vowels. It is no more 
necessary to make unnatural faces in sing¬ 
ing than in speaking. Being quiet and nat¬ 
ural brings the best results all around, and 
much more quickly. 

The speaking voice resonance, or bright, 
hard material, if not balanced and lifted 
upward by the help of dilation, or head 
voice action, will lie too low in the lower 
pharynx, so gaining too much breath- 
pressure on the chest, which will cause 
over-forcing at the voice cords, thus cre¬ 

ating disaster right at the beginning. This 
position will result in pushed, hard tone 
and will be forced to make a direct change 
(break) somewhere on the way to the 
high tones. 

Right action must always precede the 
sung tone. 

Those Precious Medium Tones 

T HE WAY to each extreme end of the 
voice must be prepared in the middle 
tones, where it is easiest to sing without 
strain, where the voice is most effective 
in color, and most natural in position and 
production. The pure headtone Wh-oo is 
an extreme dilation exercise in the exact 
middle of the voice. It is the action-lift 
and color-protection of the power and 
height of all tones. 

Going the other way, the speaking voice 
resonance is the bottom and balance of the 
high voice and dark vowel sounds, so that 
the high tone may not slip entirely away 
from its natural fundamentals, and the dark 
vowels be hollow and off pitch. 

Through classified vowel sounds or color 
points, especially adapted to be produced 
indirectly, a resultant form or position of 
the sensitive muscular curtains which build 
the resonators of the mouth, nose and head, 
we find the way to definite sensation of 
these positions. These definite sensations 
are then a sure guide, for they are always 
the same when the tone is right in color, 
with ease of production and power. The 
vowel sound is the sure leader to a classi¬ 
fied and correct result. 

Eternal Diligence 

D ILATION, the pure headtones, and 
then their mixtures require an untir¬ 
ing amount of patience and thought, as 
indeed do all the best things we gain for 

Imagine the Wh-oo as a large, dark and 
empty room which you are pouring full of 
easy and fast-flowing breath. Then use 
the long sound of the vowel e, carrying it 
up and away from the loud, rough, low 
resonance, into this prepared, dark room, 
so as to paint it dark and soft in the yawny 
stretch of the Wh-oo. 

In this way we will realize that the soft 
tones of the voice are not made by simply 
restricting the breath supply, but by lifting 
the vowel enunciations into the head voice 
dilation-action as a parachute holds up a 

The dark, dilated vowel e must keep its 
pressure on the speaking voice resonance, 
which supplies it with correct pitch, firm, 
pointed position, clear enunciation, and 
carrying power. 

Carefully and slowly sing the Wh-oo ex¬ 
ercise and the e exercise, separately and 
then together, as indicated in the first ex¬ 
ercise of this lesson, only be sure to re¬ 
member that the first one is an exercise 
of bright color, and this one the opposite, 
or dark color vowel. 

In this pure head tone exercise, form the 
dark, dilation room of the Wh-oo first, 
then sustain over to the soft, dark e tone, 
being careful to keep all the formation and 
influence of the Wh-oo to lift and color the 

Be sure that none of this process moves 
back away from the teeth and front of the 
head. This is a nasal dilation, not a spread 
of the lower pharynx. Pour the breath 
forward fast, full and free. 

Comparing Victor Herbert with Reginald De Koven 

It ivas natural for Herbert to achieve his orchestral fluency. He sat in 
the best orchestras of his day; he knew the band as a player and as a con¬ 
ductor; his wife sang in the grand operas. The geniality of the man is 
mirrored in his tunes and in the humor that he could write into his instru¬ 
mental parts. De Koven lacked his flash, his bubbling spirits, his versatility. 
I am not sure that “Robin Hood “ is not superior to any single score that 
Herbert ever wrote; yet De Koven was never ratified by the public as Her¬ 
bert was; he never captured the imagination; his attempts at popular ditties 
were commonplace, without the redeeming brilliancy—if too frequently also 
the tinsel glitter—of Herbert’s orchestration. —Isaac Goldberg in the Ameri¬ 
can Mercury. 

APRIL, 1936 


Lympic /€flk.sTH € 


in camony 

A vacation in Germany this summer will be an event of more 
than usual significance for lovers of sporf, culture and scenic 

Combined with the Xlth Olympic Games in which the elite of 
more than 50 nations will participate, there will be contests be¬ 
tween the greatest contemporary masters in music, art and archi¬ 
tecture; scientific and educational congresses and expositions; 
quaint, picturesque folk festivals. 

For music devotees, the programs will be richly varied and 
fascinating: Grand concerts in the Berlin State Opera, the Golden 
Gallery of the Charlottenburg Palace and in the Schlueter Court 
of the Berlin City Palace. Gewandhaus Concerts in Leipzig. 
Climaxed by the great Wagner Festivals to be held in Bayreuth, 
and the Mozart and Wagner Festivals at Munich. 

Of course, there will be the famous attractions of Germany: 
Romantic castles on the Rhine, charming health resorts, medieval 
towns, the Black Forest and the Bavarian Alps, to mention but 
a few. 

With Travel Marks and a 60% reduction in railroad fares, the 
traditional hospitality of the land of Gemiitlichkeit will be enjoyed 
most inexpensively. For help in planning your itinerary, consult 
your Travel Agent and write for Booklet 123. 


665 Fifth Avenue at 53rd Street, New York 


Voice Specialist — Author — Teacher of Singing 
(Contributor to The Etude Since 1927) 
YOUR questions (problems) on voice (speak¬ 
ing or singing) fully and expertly answered 
RATES for mall service. REFERENCES. 
Write: #194 Lane St„ Freeport, Pa. 


L W BOOKS for Pre-School Beginners 
for Class or Private Instruction 

A rote book for three and four-year-olds • Establishes first contact with the keyboard 
tn a unique and interesting manner • Carefully adjusted to the capacity of the 
average child • Novel duet part for teachers or parents. CNow is the ideal time 

organize classes of pre-school beginners. To ensure 
followed by LITTLE SONGS. 




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□ The First Month D Little Songs 


Canonic Treatment of Hymn Tunes 

By H. C. Hamilton 

P OSSIBLY EVERYONE is familiar heard material, in close stretto-like com- 
with that particular tune by Tallis, bination, especially when marked by rhyth- 
which furnishes an example of an in- mic accent, contributes an infectious push- 
finite canon between soprano and tenor. ing forward” more easily felt than e- 
„ . scribed. Observe well 

Bxl Ex. 2 

Whether all listeners “get” this, 
when an efficient and well balanced choir 
observes and tries to make outstanding the 
melodic combination, is open to question. 
And I have even known tenors—good read¬ 
ers, too—who carelessly passed over this 
imitative part writing, and “just never 
noticed it”—never realized they were sing¬ 
ing the identical soprano part, in a most 
clever and yet natural bit of imitative writ¬ 
ing. The tune being so even in character, 
and not possessing variety in rhythmic out¬ 
line, is mainly why the combination so com¬ 
pletely camouflages itself. Art here truly 
conceals art. Few hymn tunes are so writ¬ 
ten ; even those with extremely smooth 
flowing inner parts do not follow canonic 
form. But in playing hymns much inter¬ 
est can be added by introducing—when pos¬ 
sible—points of imitation. 

Some years ago, I was playing the piano 
for a certain Sunday School, and one of 
the hymns announced was Come to the 
Saviour. For the first time I perceived the 
possibilities here of a canon, and imme¬ 
diately put the idea into practice, while the 
children were singing. 

At once a new interest, a new atmos¬ 
phere could be noted. Of course, Root’s 
bright little tune never falls flat anyway; 
it having one of those happy sounding, 
really original lilts we occasionally find 
among hymn tune writers. The tune helps 
“sing itself.” But no sooner had I put into 
operation the little canonic imitation than 
the singing gained fifty per cent in vitality 
and enthusiasm. 

To prove this to be no mere fancy, the 
second verse was played as written. At 
once the singing deteriorated to the ordi¬ 
nary Sunday School level ; not bad, but cer¬ 
tainly lacking in the zest of the stanza just 
concluded. Then, at the third verse the 
little canon was introduced again. How the 
children seemed to leap into action! An 
irresistible onward urge, a happy feeling of 
' ' ‘ set the pulses fairly 

n this simple and ef- 

Of course the entire tune is not practicable 
for such treatment. But the two foregoing 
measures, appearing as they do, three times, 
contribute sufficient “go” to infect the en¬ 
tire tune. The refrain too, admits of sim¬ 
ilar treatment. 

As a piano and organ duet this really fine 
march tune becomes a miniature concerto; 
each instrument, taking turns, during a 
number of repetitions, at being the soloist. 
Brilliant scale figures would at one time 
supply a dazzling path, along which pro¬ 
ceeded, like some conquering hero, the or¬ 
gan’s canonic march. At another place the 
piano, as solo instrument, furnished the 
theme, while the organ added a counter 
melody suggestive of the original tune — a 
' of martial rebirth. Study 

It will be readily seen that much of this 
free treatment will fit in best with unison 
singing. And is not this sort of thing, in 
a hymn of our time, something like the way 
Bach viewed the old chorale in his day? 
How the really musical people must have 
enjoyed singing those old chorales; a ma¬ 
jestic canto fermo, to the delightful counter¬ 
point of the unsurpassable Bach at the 

Another extremely effective hymn tune 
is McGranahan’s There’s a Royal Banner. 
The imitations here take place at the sec¬ 
ond beat: 

/£ <> ’ J :7 s . 

lo the Savior 

* * f ^ 


For those in search of something old. but 
done in a new way, the better class of hymn 
tunes—even some known as the “gospel” 
variety—offer a fine and wide field. And 
how the people will enjoy the point of con- 
t^ct to use a salesman's expression—pro¬ 
vided by a familiar or easily assimilated 
tune. And finally, employing the some¬ 
times despised hymn tune in this way; ele¬ 
vating the unpretentious but really good 
melody to a new seat of honor, as it were, 
will insensibly lead the untrained ear to a 
better appreciation of classical forms 

Remember that the great masters at times 
evolved some marvellous creations from 
material much less promising than a hymn 

We give here an arrangement of the 
familiar Come to the Savior, which will 
illustrate the possibilities of this form of 
treatment, without allowing it to become 
too complex, but still maintaininsr melnH 

In the registration there are manv com 
binations available, even on a . ' 

instrument. d um s,2cd 

A general suggestion is that the ^ 
hand part be played on one manta! v« 
stops of a smooth, organ tone; the W I 
hand part on another manual with step I 
of reed or string quality predominate!?. *> 
that the imitations and counterpoints | 
catch the ear. Along with this there 
be a plenty—but not too much—ot » “• f 
tone on the pedals. 

Locating the Lines 
and Spaces 
By Gladys M. Stein 

In teaching very young pupiL f 
and spaces the instructor should 
finger on a piano key, have the poP“ [ 
it and then write it on the P r °P er 
space of his music paper. . 

This saves confusion in locating u* ; 
rect piano keys and gives the P“P d - 
thing definite to work on. 


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All Hail the Power of Jesus' Name 

By Mrs. W. Henry Herndon 

Author: Edward Perronet, was born in 
Kent, England, in 1721. He had a bad 
temper and was reputed to be a very dis¬ 
agreeable person. This song is the only 
really great and good thing he ever did. 
It was sung for sixty years before anyone 
knew who wrote it 

Tune Composer: (No. 1) William Shrub- 
sole wrote the tune Miles Lane for the 
song. This tune was published with the 
song. Shrubsole was only nineteen years 
old when he composed it in the organ gal¬ 
lery of Canterbury Cathedral. He was once 
a choir boy. 

Tune Composer: (No. 2) Oliver Holden, 
a business man of Charlestown, Massachu¬ 

setts, wrote the tune Coronation. This tune 
was also composed especially for the song. 
The Coronation tune is most often used. 
Holden was a self-taught musician. 

This hymn has been called “the most 
inspiring and triumphant hymn of the Eng¬ 
lish language.” It is quite popular as a 
congregational hymn. The original song 
contained eight stanzas. It is difficult to 
find any two modern hymnals that give 
identical versions. 

The hymn should be played in a dignified 
and maj estic manner, because we are honor¬ 
ing a King. In the Coronation tune, be very 
careful to give the first note two beats, and 
do not hold the last note before the Amen 
too long. 

an f?atl tfje pou?cr. 

Coronation. C. M. Oliver Holden. 

1. All hail the pow’r of Je - sus’ name! Let an - gels pros-trate fall; 

2. Ye cho-sen seed of Is-rael’s race, Ye ran-somed from the fall, 

3. Let ev - ’ry kin-dred, ev -’ry tribe On this ter - res-trial ball, 

Bring forth the roy - al di - a - dem, And crown Him Lord of all, 

Hail Him who saves yon by His grace, And crown Him Lord of 

To Him all maj - es - ty as - cribe, And crown Him Lord 

Bring forth the roy-al di - a - de 
Hail Him who saves yon by His gra 
To Him all maj - es - ty as - cril 

:n;t j ; 7 f jsja, 

i - r 

m, And crown Him Lord < 
ce, And crown Him Lord c 
be, And crown Him Lord ( 

- db 

i ~ 

if all! 
if all! 

>f all! A-men. 

Miles' Lane. C. M. William Shrubsole. 

The Power of Music 

"Music offers something in the way of entertainment, of recreation, of cul¬ 
ture, of the expanding of the mental and emotional horizon that comes best, 
if not entirely, through actual participation. He who has taken part in the 
sympathetic singing of a lovely madrigal, a noble chorale, a fine motet, a 
simple folk song, or even a popular song, and all the parallels of these in the 
instrumental field, has brought some of that refreshment to the spirit, inspira¬ 
tion to the soul, and breadth of vision to the whole being which we need to 
have in our leisure if it is to send us back to our work sane and strong, and 
if it is to help us on our way toward that better being which each of us 




. . . with the tone 
you've always admired! 

Estey Organ Corporation 

Brattleboro, Vermont 

APRIL, 1936 



Olin Downes say that An Outline 
of the History of Music "should have 
been available before this to readers 
of English.” 


it is by Karl Nef, late professor of 
musicology at the University of Basel, 
Switzerland, and is translated by Carl 
Pfatteicher, director of music at Phillips 

And because Andre Pirro, the Sor- 
bonne's well-known musicologist, says it 
is "the most reliable guide for students, 
the most instructive survey of facts and 
opinions for the amateurs, of music.” 

"Not many writers have got so much 
history into the compass of-a single vol¬ 
ume of no excessive size,” declares the 
New York Times. The New York Sun 
agrees with this: "It is a compact, clearly 
written thoroughly logical and compre¬ 
hensive history of music, one of the best 
short ones that has ever been published 
in English and we suspect in any other 
language. It is thoroughly up to date.” 

The coupon below will bring the book 
to you at once. The price is only $3.50. 
There are 386 pages, illustrated by actual 

Columbia University Press, Box A830 
2960 Broadway, New York City 

Please send me, for payment enclosed ( ) ; 

C. O. D. ( ) a copy of An Outline of the 

History of Music, by Karl Nef, the price of 
which is *3.50. 


Masterpieces of Piano Music 

Paper Edition 

such as Spring Song 

Prelude in C (J. S. Bach) 
such as Melody in P (Rubinstein) 
Scarf Dance (Chaminade) 

such as Simple Aveu (Thome) 
Cradle Song (Hauser) 

such as Largo (Handel) 

Ave Maria (Bach-Gounod) 
such asi Evening Star (Wagner) 
Celeste Aida (Verdi) 

For sale at your favorite music 
counter or sent POSTPAID upon 
receipt of price. Money refunded if 
volume does not meet with your ap¬ 
Illustrated folder with contents 
cheerfully sent upon request 

1140 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Unclosed find $- for which se 

paid Masterpieces of Piano Music. 

Fifty-Seventh Annual Meeting of the Music Teachers’ 
National Association 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; December 27-31, 1935 

We take pleasure in presenting in The Etude ^Jf^l^National 
and revised report of the recent Convention ofihiMu** 

Association, as presented by D. M. Swarthout, Secretary. 

the five days included, besides the program 
of American music, a harpsicho . 

Alice Ehlers of Vienna; piano recitals Dy 
Mrs H H A Beach and Evelyn Swarth- 
out^ a recital by Charles Hackett, tenor 
and Grete Stueckgold, s °P ran °> . 

Metropolitan Opera Company; a c0 ^ cer ‘,^ 
the Philadelphia Orchestra under Leopold 
Stokowski, featuring a premiere perform¬ 
ance in America of the “Concerto in D 
minor for two pianos and orchestra by 
Poulenc, with Jeanne Behrend and Alex 
ander Kelberine as soloists; an organ re¬ 
cital by Arthur W. Howes; a concert by 
the Choral Club of Camden Art Society, 
Henry S. Fry, director; a recital by the 
Trio Classique, Ardelle Hopkins, flute, 
Eudice Shapiro, violin, and Virginia Ma- 
jewski, viola, from the Curtis Institute of 
Music; a concert by the American Society 
of Ancient Instruments, Ben Stad, director; 
and a musical program by the Zwecker- 
Hahn String Quartette. 

Other interesting events were: a trip to 
the Theodore Presser Home for Retired 
Music Teachers with a complimentary buf- 
fet supper tendered the delegates by Dr. 
James Francis Cooke, president of the 
Presser Foundation; and a trip to the RCA 
Victor factories in Camden, New Jersey, 
in charge of Mrs. Frances E. Clark of the 
Educational Division of the RCA Victor 

Interesting and well-attended luncheon 
programs were held by the Choral and Fes¬ 
tival Alliance, with Mrs. William Arms 
Fisher presiding; and by the National Fed¬ 
eration of Music Clubs, with Mrs. John 
Alexander Jardine, National President, in 
charge, at which the principal address was 
given by A. Walter Kramer of New York 
City. Phi Mu Alpha, Mu Phi Epsilon, and 
Sigma Alpha Iota also each held a luncheon 

Officers elected for 1936 are: Earl V. 
Moore of the University of Michigan, presi¬ 
dent ; Rudolph Ganz of the Chicago Musical 
College, vice-president; D. M. Swarthout 
of the University of Kansas, secretary; 
Oscar Demmler of Pittsburgh, Pennsyl¬ 
vania, treasurer; and Karl W. Gehrkens 
of Oberlin College, editor. Newly elected 
members to the three year term of the 
Executive Committee were: Edwin Hughes 
of New York City, George S. Dickinson 
of Vassar College, and Charles Vardell 
of Salem, North Carolina. Mrs. Crosby 
Adams, for fifty-five years a member of 
the Music Teachers’ National Association, 
was reelected to the one year term of the 
Executive Committee. At the annual ban¬ 
quet, Mrs. Adams was honored by an ova¬ 
tion, the delegates rising to their feet to pay 
her homage. 

Chicago was chosen as the convention 
city for the 1936 meeting. 

T HE 57TH ANNUAL meeting of the 
Music Teachers’ National Associa¬ 
tion, held in Philadelphia from De¬ 
cember 27th to 31st, 1935, brought together 
music educators from all parts of the coun¬ 
try to hear an interesting and instructive 
five days program prepared under the direc¬ 
tion of Frederic B. Stiven, president of the 
Association during the past year. Head¬ 
quarters for most of the sessions was the 
Bellevue-Stratford Hotel. The opening 
evening featured a program of music by 
American composers, sponsored by the 
Philadelphia Music Teachers Association 
of which Edward Ellsworth Hipsher is 
president, which contained among others, 
selections from several composers resident 
in Philadelphia. A reception followed, at¬ 
tended by several hundred people in honor 
of the officers and delegates to the Music 
Teachers’ National Association. 

Papers and addresses given during the 
following four days included those pre¬ 
sented by Marion Keighley Snowden of 
London, Mrs. H. H. A. Beach, Mrs. Fran¬ 
ces E. Clark, Nikolai Sokoloff, Edwin 
Hughes, Bruce Simonds, George Wood- 
house of London, Wm. S. Brady, Edgar 
Schofield, Wm. T. Bartholomew, Mrs. Wil¬ 
liam Arms Fisher, Harry Clay Banks, Jr., 
Laura C. Boulton, Henry S. Drinker, Joseph 
Yasser, Olin Downes, Russell V. Mor¬ 
gan, Ralph Clewell, Max Schoen, Theodore 
M. Finney, James T. Quarles, George L. 
Lindsay, Hans Kindler, Ernest LaPrade, 
Hubert Kessler, Hans Weisse, Frederick S. 
Converse, and Miss Nancy Campbell. 

The annual banquet of the Music Teach¬ 
ers’ National Association, with the National 
Association of Schools of Music which 
again met in joint session with it, brought 
out an attendance of over three hundred 
and had as its main feature an inspiring 
address by Roy Dickinson Welch of Prince¬ 
ton University on “The Musician and So¬ 
ciety.” Rudolph Ganz of Chicago acted as 
toastmaster and the musical offerings of the 
evening were a program by the Dorothy 
Johnstone-Baesler Harp Ensemble and an 
abbreviated performance of Liza Lehmann’s 
“In a Persian Garden,” sung by a quartet 
consisting of Emily Stokes Hagar, soprano; 
Marie Stone Langston, contralto; Bernard 
Poland, tenor; and Edward Rhein, bass; 
with Virginia Snyder at the piano, the harp 
ensemble also assisting in the accompani¬ 

A Piano Forum, with Edwin Hughes as 
chairman; a Vocal Forum, Wm. S. Brady, 
chairman; an Organ and Choral Forum, 
Harry Clay'Banks, chairman; an Orches¬ 
tra Forum, George L. Lindsay, chairman; 
and a Theory Forum with Frederick S. 
Converse presiding, were well attended. 
Musical offerings interspersed through 

"Love in the Orchestra" 

“Viola, I love you. I want you tuba 
mine. I lay my harp at your feet.” 

“Aw, quit stringing me along. You 
can’t get to first bass with me.” 

“Say not this. I’m tired of playing sec¬ 
ond fiddle! You’ve got too many guys 
bowing you around.” 

“Oh, what a violin situation! What 
brass! Why did you piccolo thing like 
that to say to me? I ought to give you a 
baton the head!” 

“Yeah? Gee, I’m trebling all over!” 

“You’d better tremolo-ver what you said. 

I’m liable to drum you yet.” 

“Oh, but suite, let’s give this a rest.” 
“Oh! Trying to snare me in double 
quick tune, eh? Well, quit horning in 
Gwan! Blow!” 

u,lT el T. fife n0t been a chum P> A*" 

w " lc , “ l 

Say, I’m tired of listening to your 
chorus language. You’re not so sharp. 
I m leaving you flat!” v 

—The Scherzo (National Music Ca mp .) 

Stay at the Roosevelt. It is 
readily accessible to any pan 
of Manhattan and in the 
very center of the mid-town 
business district. Roosevelt 
service is quiet yet swift and 
efficient. Folks tell us that 
our rooms make grand of¬ 
fices, and many of our local 
friends take one by the day, 
just to get away from their 
own telephone and finish up 
a pressing job. 


the etude 

Organ and Choir Questions 


By Henry S. Fry, Mus. Doc. 

Ex-dean of the Pennsylvania Chapter of the A. G. O. 

Jio questions will be answered in THE ETUDE unless accompanied by the full name 
and address of the inquirer. Only initials, or pseudonym given, will be published: 

q How did fiautino^’ 

— Flute n Harmomque 4 —Oboe S ' — Vox Hu- 
S’—Oven Diapason 8' — Stopped Diapa¬ 
son g '—Salicional S'—Voix Celeste 8 — 

0' _ Doppel Flute 8' — Flute d’Amour 

f'-Principal 7—Dulciana 8'—Melodia S'— 
Camba8 —Open Diapason 8'. What is your 
oSion of the tonal balance of this organ, 
the last seven stops, being the Great organ 
stops -'Viautino—Lrhis word ending in Italian 
diminutive “ino” indicates a flute toned stop 

0f Flute 1 S Harmonique — • English, Harmonic 
Flute — name derived from tne fact that the 
Dipes which form the larger part of its com- 
EE are formed and voiced to yield their first 
harmonic upper partial tones .instead of those 

? 0 hris y ace b om°p I ifsSfd % f smalfperSion 
■ >dy of the pipe. 

-Name derived 

■om orchestral in- 
e. The older form 

uoe biamj __.,—ered imitative, the 

_jtive stop usually being known as Orches¬ 
tral Oboe. 

Oboe—Name deri 
strument ~(i “■ 

of Oboe 

ongmauy meant run min ™ , 11 

The Open Diapason is the principal founda¬ 
tion stop of the organ. The term “open is 
used to distinguish the stop from the im¬ 
properly named Stopped Diapason, which 
properly belongs to the Flute family of stops. 
Stopped Diapason—An improperly named 
stop of unimitntive flute tone. The pipes are 
half length, and are equipped with a “stopper 

pitch one 01 

—The n 

a stop belonging 

„ __ _i stop formed by two or 

ranks of pipes, one or more ranks of 
which are slightly out of tune with the cor¬ 
rect unison pitch, producing n wave or undu¬ 
lation in the tone. In present day organs the 
Voix Celeste is usually formed by a set of 
pipes undulating with those of the Salicional. 
-.-s’-.ion is iT." 

__„je Viole cS>l._ 

Aeoline—In the present day organ is 
usually a very soft stop. It has been de¬ 
scribed as a lingual stop voiced in imitation 
of the Aeolian Harp. 

Doppel Flute—Designates a covered wood 
stop the pipes of which have two mouths, 
placed .directly opposite each other, from 

Flute d’Amour 4'—A stop of small scaled 
wood pipes, partaking of the character of the 
Lieblich Gedeckt and the Rohr Flute. 

Principal 4'—The octave of the Diapason 
(Open) 8'—the stop, being at this time more 
generally known as “Octave.” 

Dulciana—A diminutive Diapason. 

Melodia—A stop of unimitatlve flute qual¬ 

Gamba—A wrong abbreviation of Viola da 
Gamba, the name given to the old instru¬ 
ment which was the precursor of the Violon¬ 
cello. The “Gamba” belongs to the string 

The specification of the organ, if properly 
voiced, should produce a fairly good tonal 
balance, considering its size. Of course de¬ 
sirable additions could be made, such as 
Chorus Reeds, Mixtures, and so forth. 

Q. In our church we have two reed organs 
—a one manual and a two manual. The one 
manual organ has the following stops: Pedal 
Point—Sub Bass Dolce 16’—Contra Bass 16' 
—English Horn Dolce 8’ — Snh Base if,' — 
Eolian Harp o'—Viola y—Vi„ln Holer 
Vox Humana, Serephone S'—Piccolo 4'— 
Melodia 8'—Vox Celeste. 8 '—Octave Coupler — 
Melodia Dolce 8'—and Como 16'. Which stops 
rhould be used for hymn planing t Which stops 
should be included in the “Great full” and 
“Swell fulV’t 

The two manual organ has the following 

P"dal—Open Diapason 16'—Plopped Diapason 
16' Couplers—Swell to Great—Swell to 
Pedal—Great to Pedal. Which stops should 
be used for hymn ploying? For “Great full” 
shall I use all Great stops open f For “Swell 
I"' 1 shall I use all Swell stops open f What 
toes “Swell full, but closed" mean? What is 
ns Organ”? Explain the meaning of 

Celeste.” 0 ’"* md Swel1 t0 Great.—“Vox 
_ A - F or £y ran ptayinff on the one manual 
2JS5J. “7 Snb Bass and all 8' and 4' stops 
Fnr 61 ? V< J X Celeste. Also use Octave Coupler. 
For hearty simrins you may be able to use 
which you can probably get by 
opening both knee swells. The “Pedal Point” 
1S a 8t °P which, when drawn, 
npw P h the bass note t0 be sustained until a 
maHonru? is R ut d°wn, when it aiito- 
Th 1C ^ L relp . ases I be one Previously played. 
rlD n/Sf° >T)S llsm £ the word “Dolce” probably 
2® 2* T rea , se the tonp if similar stops are 
MelodiTrl r , « Melodia is in use 

Melodia Dolce will not add anything to the 

APRIL, 1936 

volume of tone produced, it simply being a 
softer duplicate of the Melodia stop. As the 
instrument is only one manual Full Great 
and Full Swell can only be suggested by using 
fewer stops for Full Swell than for Full 

On the two manual organ for hymn playing 
try Great—Diapason, Dulciana, Trumpet and 
Octave Coupler. Swell—Salicional, Oboe and 
Flute 4'. Pedal—Open Diapason and Stopped 
Diapason. Couplers—Swell to Great. Swell to 
Pedal, Great to Pedal. When “Great Full" is 
indicated use heavy stops of the Great Organ 
(not necessarily Clarinet 16'). For “Full 
Swell” use all Swell stops. (Swell open, if 
full power is desired.) As the Vox Humana 
is a tremulant on the reed organ, do not use 
it unless that effect is desired. Full Swell 
but closed indicates using Full Swell but ex¬ 
pression (Swell) pedal closed. “Grand Organ” 
on the reed- organ is usually a pedal which 
when “down” gives “Full Organ.” Pedal 
Point has already been explained and Swell 
to Great is a coupler coupling the upper row 
of keys (Swell) to the lower row (Great). 

Q. What would be the approximate cost 
of the following specification for a pipe organ 
and would it be suitable for a residence? 
Open Diapason, 61 Pipes; Stopped Diapason 
Bass, 12 Pipes; Melodia Treble, 49. Pipes; 
Dulciana, 49 Pipes; Octave, 61 Pipes; Flute 
Octaviante. 61 Pipes; Contra Gamba, 61 
Pipes; Pedal Bourdon, 30 Pipes; Manual Oc¬ 
tave Coupler, Coupler Manual to Pedal. 
Tracker or Electric action. — J. C. 

A. An approximate price for your speci¬ 
fication would be $1800 to $1900. The speci¬ 
fication is for an organ of one manual only 
and we would not recommend it for a resi¬ 
dence instrument. You can purchase a two 
manual Unit organ for less money, which we 
think will prove very much more satisfactory 
for your purpose. One manual organs are 
very rarely built these days. We are sending 
you by mail a specification of an organ we 
would prefer to the one you submitted. Elec¬ 
tro-pneumatic action would be used. Tracker 
action is now considered obsolete. 

Q. Why are some stops on theater organs 
red (or some other color) and the rest white 
or plain? Please explain how to set the stop 
combinations to be used on the pistons. 

—G. F. L. 

A. Different colored stops on theater 
organs usually indicate tone colors—for in¬ 
stance red for reeds, amber for strings, and 
so forth. Adjustable combinations vary in 
the manner of setting them. In some cases the 
piston is held in while the stops are arranged, 
thus setting the desired combination. Another 
system used is to arrange stops desired, hold 
in the adjuster, then touch the piston on 
which combination is to be se’t. The next step 
is to release the piston followed by release of 
the adjuster. The combination desired should 
then be available through the piston on which 

Q. What are the names of the manuals in 
their order after the Choir organf What stops 
should be used for accompanying a male quar¬ 
tet? What stops for an anthem? —E. H. 

A. The fourth manual is usually Solo 
Organ—sometimes the Echo Organ. The regis¬ 
tration to be used for accompanying a male 
quartet depends on the character of the ac¬ 
companiment, amount of tone required and 
so forth. If the accompaniment is simply a 
duplication of the voice parts, you might try 
Swell—Violin Diapason, Flute. Salicional and 
Flute 4’. The accompaniments to anthems are 
varied and the stops to be used depend also 
on the character of the passage being 

Q. A church is considering the installation 
of a two manual modern type unit organ with 
about thirty-seven stops, including accessories. 
It has no Open Diapason either on the Great 
or Ewell. It was originally used in a residence 
and can be secured now for less than $3 .000. 
I have recommended the addition of an Open 
Diapason. Have I advised rightly f The organ 
with player was listed at fs.000. Why such a 
reduction, do you think? Will you kindly ex¬ 
plain the meaning of “Unit Organ”? —C. E. L. 

A. An Open Diapason in the Great should 
certainly be added and, if possible, a Violin 
Diapason to the Swell. Make sure that the 
wind supply and all resources are ample for 
any additions made. You did not send the 
specification of the organ nor state the size 
of the auditorium, so we cannot express a 
definite opinion on the suitability of the in¬ 
strument. If it is to be used in the same 
auditorium (seating about 1,200) to which 
you referred in a former communication, we 
advise your being sure that the instrument is 
adequate, especially so, since it is a residence 
organ. We, of course do not know the reason 
for the great reduction in price, unless the 
party has no further use for the instrument, 
is replacing it with a larger instrument, or 
prefers to turn it into cash. A Unit Organ 
is an instrument in which one set of pipes 
is used for two or more stops at different 
pitches—for instance, a Bourdon of 97 pipes 
furnishes Bourdon 16'—Stopped Flute 8'— 
Fi.'fp 4' — Nazard Flute 2%' and Flautino 2'. 
Other stops are similarly used. 

The Hammond Organ may 
be seen and heard in the fol¬ 
lowing cities: 

Albany—McClure & Dorwaldt 
Amarillo—Jenkins Music Co. 

Atlanta—Cable Piano Co. 

Auburn, Me.—George H. Davis 
Baltimore—Cbas. M. Stieff, Ino. 
Bartlesville—Jenkins Music Co. 
Binghamton—Weeks & Dickinson, Ino. 
Birmingham—E. E. Forbes & Sons 
Boston—M. Steinert & Sons 
Buffalo—Denton, Cottier & Daniels 
Casper, Wyo.—C. E. Wells Music Co. 
Cincinnati—Baldwin Piano Co. 
Cleveland—The Halle Bros. Co. 
Columbus—Heaton's Music Store 
Council Bluffs— SohmoUer & Mueller Co. 
DaUas—Whittle Music Company 
Dayton—Ande ~ 


—Cbas. E. Wells Music C< 


Duluth—Miles Music Co. 

Ft. Smith—Jenkins Music Co. 

Ft. Worth—The Shield Company 

Hartford—Watkins Bros., Ino. 
Honolulu—Thayer Piano Co., Ltd. 
Houston—Automatic Sales Corp. 
Indianapolis—Pearson Company, Ino. 
Jackson, O.—Summers & Son 
Joplin—Jenkins Music Co. 

Kansas City—Jenkins Music Co. 
Lancaster—I. H. Troup Music House 
Little Rook—Houck Music Col 
Louisville—Shackleton Piano Co. 

Miami—S. Ernest Philpitt & Son 
Milwaukee—J. B. Bradford Piano Co. 
Nashville—Roy Warden Piano Co. 

New Orleans—Philip Werlein, Ltd. 
Omaha—Schmoller & Mueller Co. 
Oklahoma City—Jenkins Music Co. 
Philadelphia—John Wanamaker 
Pittsburgh— C. C. Mellor Co. 

Portland, Me.—Cressey & Allen 
Portland, Ore.—Sherman, Clay & Co. 
Rochester, N. Y.—Levis Music Store 
Salina—Jenkins Music Co. 

San Diego—Thearle Music Co . 

San Francisco—Sherman, Clay & Co. 
Seattle—Sherman, Clay & Co. 

Shelby, N. C.— Pendleton's Music Store 
Springfield, Mass.—M. Steinert S Sons 
St. Louis—Aeolian Co. of Missou 

Now any musician may have 
a truly fine organ in his home 
—for daily practice; for years of in¬ 
spiration. The Hammond Organ, 
though adequate for the largest 
church or auditorium, is equally at 
home in any living room. The two- 
manual console and pedal clavier 
need a space only /our feet square. 
There are no pipes, reeds, or air- 
pressure system—nothing to get out 
of tune, nothing to build in, nothing 
to tear out later... . The Hammond's 
tone is serenely beautiful, its range 
limitless. To own a Hammond Organ 
is to hold the key to a new world of 
music. . . . Write for a descriptive 
booklet to The Hammond Clock Co., 
2929 N. Western Ave., Chicago. 



to us as such, or who properly identify themselves 

128-PAGE BOOK containing 124 Optional 1st Violin Parts (complete, and entirely in the 
1st position) to the Walter Jacobs Standard Marches and Galops; and/or 
64-PAGE BOOK containing 141 Conductor-Solo Bb Cornet Parts (full size) from the 
Walter Jacobs Band Books; and/or 

48-PAGE BOOK containing 51 1st Violin Parts, some full concert size, of the Walter 
Jacobs Overtures, Suites and Selections, mostly of medium to very easy grade. Instru¬ 
mentation includes Eb Alto and Bb Tenor Saxophones. Clarinets and Cornets for Bb 

To All Others These Books Are $1.00 EACH 
Please supply your permanent address and present school 
location (if any) and indicate your musical status. 

WALTER JACOBS, Inc., 120 Boylston St., BOSTON, MASS. 

Jacobs’ Band Monthly and Jacobs’ Orchestra Monthly, $1.00 per year, each. 


Edited by 

It is the ambition^of The Etude to make this department a Violinist s Etude c P 


Frog and Freedom of the 

By Nathan Weinberg 


ADOLPH BUSCH, who several years 
ago had the unique distinction of ap- 
A pearing as soloist with Toscannini 
in the Bach and Beethoven concertos, pos¬ 
sesses, probably, the finest bow arm in 
present day violin playing. His use of the 
bow, particularly in the Bach “A minor 
Concerto,” was a revelation and opened 
up entirely new possibilities of color and 
phrasing. The first movement of this con¬ 
certo, which is usually played a la Kreutzer, 
became in his hands a winged, breathing 
organism. At the opening, instead of play¬ 
ing it detache at the tip 


and also this 

ilr 4 

Best of all, instead of the usual humdrum 
sort of thing, was this phrasing 

I N RECENT YEARS the violoncello 
seems to be gaining the favor and ap¬ 
preciation that it so richly deserves. If 
the violin has merited the title of “king”, 
of musical instruments, certainly the violon¬ 
cello may justly share the crown as 
“queen.” An oddity of this classification, 
of course, is that the “queen” has a bass 
voice, whereas the “king” commands the 
register extending above the highest so- 

But for depth and stirring qualities of 
tone, the violoncello possesses a most allur¬ 
ing magnetism all its own, the sharing of 
which falls beyond the compass of even the 
violin. It is a recognized fact that the 
musical tones that are the most soothing 
are based on low frequency notes, and this 
explains partly that inexpressible something 
that draws one to the music of a violon- 
cello—even though the violinist-listener, 
aware of the possibilities of the violin, may 
claim preference for the latter instrument. 

As a solo instrument the violoncello is 
still comparatively rare, and in many locali¬ 
ties it is somewhat of a novelty, so that the 
striking beauty of its music all the more 

What is the essential characteristic of 
these Busch phrasings? First and last a 
moving bow. In violin playing as a rule 
there is a continuous plodding away at the 
tip or at most, the upper half of the bow. 
The result is a static, dull style. The pro¬ 
duction of a fine, breathing violin tone 
requires a definite ratio of weight and pro¬ 
pulsion. In place of the former we most 
frequently have pressure, something quite 

Freeing the Arm 

T HE ATTITUDE of most violinists 
toward propulsion is a “skating on thin 
ice” affair. In many years of teaching, 
scarcely a pupil has appeared who at first 
felt comfortable playing at the frog of the 
bow. And a lack of freedom at the frog 
means that the bow arm has a kink in it, 
which makes fine bowing impossible. 

The frog is the one part of the bow 
where every joint of the right arm must 
function perfectly. At the tip we can play 
entirely with the forearm; at the middle, 
with forearm or hand; but at the frog 
there must be a perfect functioning of the 
upper arm, lower arm, hand and fingers. 
Yes, fingers! We have heard so much 
talk about the elbow and about the wrist, 
but careful search reveals only two brief 
references to that which gives the final 
smoothness and freedom to the bow 
the fingers. 

The movement of the fingers used 

bowing can be discovered by opening and 
closing one’s hand, restricting the move- 
ment to the joints closest to the palm, the 
others retaining the curved position as on 
the bow. Try it first without the bow. it 
is the “Bye-bye” movement done with the 
fingers instead of the hand. (Incidentally, 
why do we speak of playing with the wrist. 
The hand plays, not the wrist.) After 
ascertaining the nature of the movement, 
take the bow and try it at the middle. It 
is easier to start there. Keep the hand 
quiet and move the bow up and down about 
two inches on the open strings, using the 
fingers exclusively. It is difficult at first 
(although some whose joints are supple, 
find it easy). Give special attention to the 
up movement as it is the most difficult. 
Gradually move down to the frog and then 
devote all of your practice to that part of 
the bow. Try the Kreutzer Exercise, 
No. 2, each note three times with this 
stroke. Triplets balance the up and down 
strokes by bringing the strong beat on each 
group successively. This stroke must be 
developed to the height of virtuosity. Every 
type of string crossing and mixed bowing 
must be practiced with it until the finger 
joints hav.e a snake-like suppleness. Get a 
copy of “Sevcik Op. 2, part 4.” These ex¬ 
ercises are excellent and will develop your 
wrist and finger joints to a remarkable 
degree. After a while you will find it de¬ 
licious fun to play such passages as: 


Shall I Choose the Violoncello? 

By Anthony G. Kovach 

easily captures popular appreciation. Hence, 
in attempting to account for the scarcity 
of players of this instrument, particularly 
among amateur musicians, other reasons 
than lack of appreciation must naturally be 

For one thing, it might be said that the 
violoncello is a target for those inconsistent 
vagaries of humans whereby main issues 
are sometimes decided solely on the strength 
of incidental factors. Almost invariably 
one of the first remarks offered by new 
acquaintances of this instrument is that “it 
certainly makes beautiful music—but the 
size 1” And, as likely as not, if the individ¬ 
ual has been sufficiently carried away by 
the music to resolve to start Sonny in les¬ 
sons, he will select a violin for the boy, be¬ 
cause, he will explain—well, it’s so much 
more convenient in size, and, after all, it is 
the king of instruments. 

The trouble is that the violin being quite 
common, its study is too often taken lightly, 
and the novelty soon wears off, when 
technical difficulties seem to loom up in 
prohibitive numbers. As a result, the coun¬ 
try is flooded with would-be violinists, in 

whom the spark of enthusiasm has been 
smothered in a humdrum application and 
consequent indifference. 

But if the violoncello is a novelty, this 
very novelty is a factor in its favor. ’ The 
inconsistent idea of the instrument being 
objectionable because of its size is usually 
made a far fetched issue of in humorously 
holding it up to ridicule by someone who 
nevertheless has a high regard for its music. 
If parents take the right attitude, the 
youngster will rather enjoy the attention 
that he may attract with his “big fiddle.” 

Amateur or Virtuoso 
O F COURSE THERE are other and 
lm P° rtant considerations that 
may influence one’s choice between the 
violin and the violoncello for music study 

dedde g the’iss°,rh WIS ? aCre -, niay ° ffer to heI P 

decide the issue by gloomilv draggine forth 

T ; h ' l,,,er tawSuS 

S“,r tav ' a,uin ' d 

it frog 

We are not quoting examples for their 
musical value. These are things that the 
average violinist knows and plays. 

But the real fun has not begun yet. Id- 
crease the length of your strokes to about 
a third of the bow (at the frog) and try 
to coordinate the hand, forearm and upper 
arm with the fingers. When you can do 
that the road to mastery of the bow is open 
to you. Try this passage, using whole bow 
for the eighth notes and playing the six- 
teenths alternately at the frog and point 

Also this 


point whole bo* frog 

Swing the bow from top to bottom, so 
that the shorter notes alternate at both 
parts. With a mastery of the finger stroke 
you will feel equally at case at the frog and 
tip. No more timid playing of Kreutrer 
at the tip of the bow, but a beautiful, swing¬ 
ing bow arm that seems to have wings and 
which produces a tone of satisfying beauty. 

Certainly, if one has in mind the attain¬ 
ment of virtuosity, advanced technical diffi¬ 
culties loom into view. The attainment of 
complete mastery of the violoncello un¬ 
doubtedly calls for skill developed to > 
very high order. But the ultimate in at¬ 
tainment on this instrument, just as in the 
case of tire violin, is reserved for a mofl- 
or less limited number naturally fitted with 
certain aptitudes, commonly referred toas 
“gifts,” among which may be numbered 
enthusiasm and perseverance. But as 
thousands of amateur violinists attain to * 
degree of proficiency that renders their 
playing a genuine source of pleasure at 
least to themselves and to their more or 
less limited audiences, just so the amateur 
violoncellist may learn to command his i"' 
strument to the same extent with no m°? 
difficulty. What should be remembered tt 
that if the violoncello surpasses the 
in difficulty in some advanced stages of the 
study, it also has its advantages in the be¬ 
ginning stages. Then too, there are thou¬ 
sands of amateur violin students who never 
attain to those final higher rungs of o® 1 ' 
cianly achievement. 


the etude 

Indeed, where there is a violoncellist 
among a group of amateur musicians, he 
is often singled out by hopeful violin 
players as an object of attention on ac¬ 
count of his seemingly easy command of 
certain graces of finer playing popular with 
the younger musician, the secrets of which 
persistently evade the average violin student. 
Advanced violinists are familiar with the 
ease with which a young student is carried 
away by the even pulsations of a vibrato 
flowing from under a well-controlled bow. 
In the heat of enthusiasm the student will 
drag out his own violin “once more,” as 
though for one supreme final effort to try 
to open all at once the gateway to the soul 
of the instrument—only to find himself non¬ 
plussed in the next instant when he finds 
that by some apparently magical process the 
violoncello breathes forth these same elusive 
effects under the fingers of his brother 
artist, seemingly without effort. 

The reason for this is exactly what it 
seems to be. Purity of tone and a smooth 
vibrato are easier of production on the 
violoncello than on the violin—the first be¬ 
cause a uniformity of vibrations is easier 
to produce with the long strings of the 
violoncello than with the short strings of 
the violin. In the second instance, the left 
wrist maintains a natural and undistorted 
position on the violoncello—at least in the 
first four positions—which is not the case 
with the violin, hence the easier production 
of the waves of the vibrato. 

The Difficult Positions 
a more legitimate argument by asking, 
“What about that primary difficulty of the 
violoncello, the need of acquiring that 
elusive sixth sense which is necessary to 
guide accurate stopping from the second 
to fourth positions, when the hand is out 
of contact with both the scroll end and the 
rib, and is expected to navigate with the 
greatest precision in a just faintly charted 
sea, far beyond view of dry land?” It 

must be admitted that the development of 
the necessary mental vision and intuition 
is ordinarily reached only by a long and 
slow path trodden with persistent practice. 
The difficulties of mastering the second 
position on the violin may seem as nought 
when considered in the light Of the re¬ 
quirements demanded of the violoncello 
student in that respect. 

To help tide over this difficulty, the writer 
has successfully applied a mechanical aid 
that renders each of the intermediate posi¬ 
tions between the first and fifth compara¬ 
tively easy of mastery. By following this 
method some students may find them no 
more difficult than the first position. This 
procedure consists of drilling small holes 
in the right side of the neck of the instru¬ 
ment, where the thumb touches and slides, 
each hole to be exactly at the spot where 
the thumb touches the neck in the respec¬ 
tive positions; then inserting small wooden 
or metal pegs, about one-sixteenth of an 
inch in diameter, leaving their ends pro¬ 
jecting about the same amount. The pro¬ 
jecting ends of these pegs may be rounded 
off just enough so that the thumb will 
readily recognize them when a contact is 
made. As the student progresses, the pegs 
may be filed off shorter and shorter, a very 
little at a time, until finally they disappear, 
when the student discovers that he knows 
the positions by intuition. 

The positions for these pegs are best de¬ 
termined by the instructor after consider¬ 
ing the “lay” of the pupil’s hand, as the 
requirements may vary slightly with differ¬ 
ent students. If carefully fitted, the pegs 
will not injure the instrument in any way, 
and they are practically invisible. 

Besides serving to indicate the positions 
and providing positive confidence in clean, 
hammer-like stopping, these guides auto¬ 
matically serve as an aid to maintaining 
the correct position of the thumb on the 
neck of the instrument. 

Do not neglect the thumb. Let it be your 
guidepost to the positions. 


. . . Land of Lingering Beauty 

Vacation in Switzerland, land of loveliness, where the 
glittering Alps cast a magic spell over care-free hours. 
The “Playground of the World” is within easy dis¬ 
tance of all Europe. Revel in the beauty of Switzer¬ 
land ... it will linger in memory-pictures long after 
your vacation has ended. Railroad fares have been re¬ 
duced up to 45 °to throughout the entire year to Amer¬ 
ican visitors staying in Switzerland 6 or more days. 
Be sure that your itinerary includes a visit to picturesque old 
BERNE capital of Switzerland and THUN, portal to the BER- 
FRAUJOCH. On to ZURICH, Switzerland's Metropolis and 
LUCERNE the beautiful, where William Tell made history-and 
over the famous St. Gothard route to LUGANO-LOCARNO, 
basking in perennial sunshine. This tour is planned for vour com¬ 
fort and enjoyment. Any tourist or steamship agent can book you. 


Violin Backs 

By Guy McCoy 

The question is frequently asked as to 
the relative value of violins having one- 
piece backs and those having backs made 
of two pieces. From a purely mechanical 
viewpoint, it would naturally appear that 
a violin back of one solid, unbroken piece 
of wood might be stronger and hence con¬ 
tribute to the value of the instrument. 
Likewise it would seem that a violin having 
a back made of two pieces of wood glued 
together might (considered solely from the 
mechanical side) have less value because 
of the possibility of these two pieces be¬ 
coming separated or otherwise injured. 

The fact of the matter is however, that 
this has nothing to do with determining 
the value of the violin. 

It is interesting to note this feature in 
the construction of some of the old violins. 
The “Messiah” Stradivarius, a picture of 

which appeared in a recent issue of The 
Etude, has a two-piece back, while the 
Bott Stradivarius has a one-piece back. 
The “Lafont” Guarnerius was made with 
a back of two pieces, while the “Leduc” 
Guarnerius has but one piece. A beautiful 
Gagliano specimen shows a two-piece back 
while a Nicolas Lupot displays an equally 
beautiful grain and coloring in its one-piece 
back. A violin by Petrus Guarnerius, made 
in 1737, has a back of two pieces, and a 
Niccolo Amati, made in 1658, has a one- 
piece back. 

And so one could continue comparing the 
various master violins and it would become 
more and more apparent that this element 
of their construction has absolutely nothing 
to do with determining their value. This 
is something far more subtle than a matter 
of one or two pieces of wood. 

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Memory Book Pages of a Musical Pilgrim 

Presenting Messages and Music From Many States 

By Aletha M. Bonner 



Uoii bernes! heav’n 

Firm united, let us be, 

Rallying round our liberty; 

As a band of brothers joined,„ 

Peace and safety we shall find. 

Hail Columbia— Joseph Hopkinson 

“m /TUSIC, its gentle notes sounding 

\/l forth a message of love and com- 
X T JL radeship, is no small medium in 
the promulgation of right principles. Citi¬ 
zenship is bettered by its uplifting influence, 
and the heart of humanity yearns for its 
wholesome beauty.” Thus was I moved to 
soliloquize in the course of a musical pil¬ 
grimage through the states of New England 
and New York, where I had been pro¬ 
foundly impressed by the power and glory 
of music. 

But our musical journey was to be con¬ 
tinued, into the “Down East” country; and 
on we went to the west bank of the beauti¬ 
ful Hudson River, across from the titan 
New York, where lies Jersey City, New 
Jersey, the birthplace of a distinguished 
musical writer, Oscar G. Sonneck (1873- 
1928), who served long and faithfully as 
Chief of the Music Division of the Library 
of Congress in Washington, D. C. 

In connection with thorough librarian- 
ship, Sonneck’s invaluable researches into 
national musical life and lore made him an 
authoritative writer on early concert and 
opera activities in America; and he is re¬ 
garded as one of the outstanding members 
of the large family of musical scribes, who 
by their conscientious criticism and schol¬ 
arly authorship have contributed largely to 
musical progress in these United States. 

A westerly course through fertile farm¬ 
lands and well wooded regions led us into 
a section of America hallowed by history. 
Passage over the turbid Delaware and en¬ 

trance into the state of Pennsylvania was 
at a point where, on a memorable Christ- 
mas night of 1776, the starved and ragged 
but staunch-hearted remnant of the Con¬ 
tinental Army, under the leadership of the 
intrepid George Washington, pushed their 
way in open boats, through a blinding 
snowstorm and ice-blocked barriers on to- 

Vivid reminders of Revolutionary days 
continued to cross and recross our path as 
we entered Philadelphia, “The Cradle of 
Independence,” a mighty town of millions, 
rich in the traditions of our country, and 
whose streets are crowded with history and 
crowned by modern achievement. 

Dear to the heart of every American is 
Independence Hall, where our history nuk¬ 
ing Declaration was signed, July 4, 1776, 
and where still hangs a famed old bell, 
whose voice and traditions have thrilled 
the nation's soul with the song of Liberty! 

But music spoke a mild as well as a 
militant message in the early days of 
Philadelphia, for Francis Hopkinson ( 1737- 
1791), poet, lawyer. Signer of the Declara¬ 
tion of Independence, and first American 
bom composer, wrote as the first secular 
song of America, My Days Hare Been St 
Wondrous Free — a remarkably tranqul 
song, to have been created amid the thrill 
of turbulent times. 

To Philadelphia, even Boston must give 
precedence for significant national "Musical 
Firsts for not only is it the birthplace of 
the first native American composer, Judge 
Hopkinson, as mentioned; but, even earlier, 
the first pipe organ completed in America 
(1737) was built by Johann Klemm of 
Philadelphia; the first avowedly musical 
organization of America, "The Orpheus 
Club," was founded there about 1759; the 
first American piano was made in 1774, 
by John Bchretit of Philadelphia: our first 
(Continued on Page 260) 

The Private Teacher and Music in the Schools 

(Continued from Page 208) 

T HE TIMES have brought the musii 
teachers in education and professiona 
music into a close fellowship of interes 
and understanding. The contribution o 
the school to the art of music has been ii 
creating interest, expression, and genera 
skill in all phases of music making. Thi 
comes from the whole to the part, or fron 
groups to individuals. The fundamenta 
value of group and individual art expres 
sion, measured in terms of enjoyment an< 
understanding of the art side of music, i 
the great contribution of school music 
Technical drill—as an end in itself—ha 
been long since abandoned, as has the poin 
of view of treating music as a science. Thi 
joy of making music for the love of it ha 
taken the place of the desire to make musii 
notes into bank notes. 

It is safe to say that music is in thi 
hands of amateurs today; and is not thi 
a wholesome sign? There are more singer 
and players than ever before, as attest* 
L xt 6 nUmber 0f orches tras reported h 
the Natmnal Bureau for the Advancemen 
of Music. There has been a constant growtl 
in numbers of players and .singers partici 
pating in school orchestras and choruse 
throughout the depression. It is true tha 
many of the young instrumentalists are sel 

taught, but nevertheless the number con¬ 
tinues to increase. The schools have set 
the pace for amateur performance, and the 
field has been ploughed for the professional 
teacher who is willing to present modem 
class instrumental or vocal instruction. He 
or she will succeed if modem class peda¬ 
gogy is adopted. Through class instruction, 
costs can be reduced for beginners. Parents 
can find out if their children really have 
musical aptitudes and whether music study 
would be warranted. 

There is no reason for expecting school 
authorities, of their own volition, to de¬ 
velop piano or instrumental study classes. 
This is the joint responsibility of the 
parents and professional and school music 
teachers. If the demand is created by the 
cooperation of these groups, then the schoo 
boards will do much to further instrumental 
class instruction. This has become the prac¬ 
tice in many places, with the cost borne if 
the main by the parents. The advantage 
is school supervision of the activity. 

There is no reason why any worth) 
progressive teacher should not establish a 
large field of interest in class instruct® 11 
carried on in his or her private studio, 
with the proper atmosphere for the 
The field exists and much must be done 
to reveal the opportunity to the well I® 11 ' 
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(Continued from Page 215) 

ing the systematic study and practice of 
all scales and broken chords? 

Some teachers, in an effort to find what 
they consider a more attractive and simple 
approach to music study, have been con¬ 
verted to the so-called “melody way” of 
ensemble development. But why not mix 
more scale knowledge and common sense 
with the teaching of melody! As soon as 
any young organization has learned to play 
the scale of E-flat smoothly it should be 
able to master simple melodies in this key 
if written within the octave. 

String players generally confine their 
study largely to the sharp keys while wind 
instrument players incline to study of the 
flat keys—largely avoiding study of the 
sharp keys. This is a grievous error. The 
player who aspires to develop a facile 
technic and infallibility of pitch should 
faithfully practice all of the twelve diatonic 
scales and the chromatic scale in all keys. 
The string player will find that careful 
study of the flat keys will make the scales 
in sharp keys much easier of performance. 
Conversely, the wind instrumentalist will 
find that he can master the scales of F, 
B-flat, E-flat, A-flat, and G-flat more thor¬ 
oughly by devoting an equal effort to the 
mastery of all the scales in sharp keys. 

Transposition becomes more and more an 
essential for the wind instrumentalist and a 
thorough knowledge of scales is necessary 
to the study of this subject. The great 
Franz Liszt not only insisted upon all his 
pupils having an intimate and thorough 
knowledge of all scales but he also insisted 
upon their transposing many of their studies 
into all other keys. 

Josef Lhevinne, distinguished pianist, says 
that “during the first five years the back¬ 
bone of all daily work in the Russian music 
schools is scales and arpeggios. The pupil 
who attempted complicated pieces without 
this preliminary preparation would be 
laughed at.” Think of the great number 
of outstanding pianists, violinists, and vio¬ 
loncellists the Russian schools have pro¬ 
duced in the past! Can you imagine a 
Horowitz, a Kreisler, a Heifetz, a Casals, 
a Paderewski, a George Barrere, or a Her¬ 
bert Clarke who failed to devote some time 
each day to the practice of 'Scales and inter¬ 
val exercises? 

These facts being self-evident, how can 
the band or orchestra fail to profit in like 
measure from a period of ten to twenty 
minutes of each rehearsal devoted to the 
attentive study of scales in their various 
formations ? 

The approach to scale study has too 
seldom been made attractive and appealing 



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—more generally it has been made to ap¬ 
pear dull, mechanical, and uninteresting. On 
the contrary, scale studies can be made 
very colorful and full of interest. They 
should never be played in a listless and in¬ 
attentive manner but rather with close con¬ 

It is advisable to devote your attention to 
but a single scale at each rehearsal. It is 
equally important that the entire cycle of 
scales be taken up over a period of re¬ 
hearsals so that no one of them will be 
neglected. A renowned teacher once made 
the assertion that “we develop speed 
through slow practice”—his meaning being 
that through careful slow practice we es¬ 
tablish such thoroughness, surety, and 
strength as will enable us readily to acquire 
necessary speed. Hence, all scales should 
first be played as long, sustained tones, 
then in whole notes, half notes, quarter 
notes, and so on, increasing the speed only 
to such degree as the playing may be done 
“cleanly.” The scales can be made into 
greatly diversified and very interesting 
studies in dynamics and they should also 
be played in all the usual articulations. All 
manner of rhythmic figurations can also be 
applied and each scale can be played in 
many rhythmic designs. Strive to develop 
a spirit of friendly competition between the 
various sections of the organization. This 
sort of unisonal practice will permit no 
laggards in the organization. Your tuba 
player or your third trombonist must play 
each exercise as cleanly and precisely as 
does your first flutist or clarinetist. Your 
bass player must play with the same sort 
of facility as that displayed by your violin¬ 
ists. If any player is inclined to lag or to 
hurry, if anyone inclines to overblow he 
will soon be recognized as an impediment 
and will be compelled to correct his faults. 
Can one section play more delicately than 
another? Can one section sustain a tone 
evenly for a greater duration than some 
other section ? Does one section play a 
rapid exercise more smoothly than another ? 
A spirit of such friendly rivalry can thus 
be developed as will serve to put each player 
on his mettle and a great improvement in 
both morale and performance will soon be 

The mistake should not be made of as¬ 
suming that such study is necessary only 
for young organizations. Just as scale 
studies form the artistic daily dozen for 
all the great artist performers, they are 
equally essential to all members of the more 
advanced bands and orchestras. John 
Philip Sousa found it to be most helpful, 
when he began rehearsals of his band at the 
beginning of each season, to use simple scale 
and dynamic studies. After a few weeks 
of such scale work you should take up some 
unisonal passage from a composition with 
which you have had difficulty and see how 
much easier it appears and how much better 
it sounds. 




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VIOLIN_Other Instruments__ 

Are You a Private_or School_Teacher? 

The Musician’s Relations to the Public 

(i Continued from Page 209) 

examples of an exaggerated introverted 
ego He was all for art and for himselt. 

At the Manhattan Opera House’ 

Ballet was rehearsing, he thought nothing 
of keeping the big orchestra waiting, at 
the rate of a dollar an hour per man, until 

seemedfto^ave an ideatot tills was a Very the way'. * Strains of orchestral music 
seemed to have a importance, the room above Caruso s warned him there 

T 0 h 0 ere W was notHng to be g done. Nijinsky would be no sleep for him that night. He 
'uch „ mJL. th« *1* Ballet could toMfc “* 

in his salon, utterly disgusted with hotel 
life in American “provinces.” 

Dislodging a Honeymoon 

T HERE WERE OTHER adversities 
on that memorable trip of ours. A 
Indeed, he wedding party in a Cincinnati hotel got in 
the way. Strains of orchestral music from 
the room above Caruso’s warned him there 

n °The° < whK)lT lt Russian n Ballet might have move nine flights down-orchestra, wed- 
heen characterized as a whirlpool of in- dmg cake, and all. Next morning the 
frigue Most of the members acted like bride and groom received from Caruso a 
a lot' of excited, irresponsible children, photograph of himself on which he had 

. world of their own, in written: Thank you for my not sleepless 

id night.” 

In Cincinnati he went shopping with me 
and the wife of his manager. We came to 

wedding party. The party consented to 

; the center around night.” 

which they circled like the moons of 
Saturn. Diaghileff, himself, had the grand 

Grand the perfume counter at which costly si 

were sold by the ounce. Caruso fumed be- 

manner, actions and attitude of 

Duke. He was also very crafty. For 11 . . . 

stance, he spoke English well but never cause there were no pint bottles, 
used the language, always insisting upon I once visited Caruso at his suite at the 
a French interpreter, and catching many a Knickerbocker Hotel and was surprised to 
side remark in English that enabled him see a table which was literally covered with 
to make a better bargain. He was very pictures of him. One of his rooms v 
bland, very smooth, but indomitably in¬ 
sistent. He would demand with the smil- 

crammed with huge books filled with press 
notices. He was fearfully afraid of drafts 
a restaurant 

ing, imperious manner of a commanding of all kinds. Once he 
general, and he always got what he wanted, with me when a waiter opened a window, 
The Russian Ballet as a whole was so very causing a draft. We found Caruso crouched 

picturesque and its members were up to 
such astounding capers that they often 
made their own publicity. 

under the table, trying to escape the draft 
But these are merely the idiosyncrasies 
of the great Caruso, and he was great. No 
one has appeared to replace his extraor¬ 
dinary appeal to the public. In this day, 
when a voice may be magnified a million 
es by electrical amplification, the situa- 
i has changed greatly. In Caruso’s time 
there was no voice of the golden richness 
and the tremendous volume which enabled 
him to sing to audiences far larger than 
those which any other singer dared ap- 

And Singers' Foibles 

N OT SO Maria Barrientos, the very 
gifted Spanish soprano with a beau¬ 
tiful voice. It was necessary to employ 
very dramatic methods to present her, and 
avoid failure. If she had appeared in con¬ 
cert in the customary concert dress of 
the time she might have had mild success. 

What could be done? Being Spanish, she proach. In Toledo, for instance, there w 
was certainly entitled to the aura of the no sizable auditorium and we turned an old 
romance of her native land. With the railroad station into a hall. The acoustics 
thought that the music and art of Spain were dubious. There were forty-eight or 
were recapturing America, she sponsored fifty rows of seats, and crowds of people 
the wearing of large Spanish combs, a had come for miles, in all sorts of con- 
beautiful Spanish mantilla, lovely Spanish vcyances, from buggies to the latest “gas 
shawls. She thus became not merely an- wagons” of that date. We had no idea 
other soprano but a representative of how many of them \v. mid he able to hear. 
Spain and its colorful life, which of course With the first number, that amazing voice 
is greater than any singer, and has always burst forth and filled every corner. Just 
been a part of the dream world of the as the high sun at midday dims even the 
great public. brightest electric searchlight so Caruso's 

Caruso had an ego that was difficult to phenomenal voice, dimmed all others, 
conceal. But with it, he was warm, human, Caruso was exceedingly generous, and 
delightful. He liked to feel that he was a his Christmas presents to his friends at 
leader in all things. He had a collection the Metropolitan Opera House v 

of emeralds of which he was exceedingly 
proud. I told him one day of the fabulous 
collection of jewels owned by Diamond Jim 
Brady; he insisted that his collection was 
far more valuable. 

When I accompanied Caruso on a con¬ 
cert tour to Cincinnati, twenty years ago, 

he was exposed to what he considered hard- but Christmas. 

very munificent. He must have represented 
a very handsome income to his Fifth Ave¬ 
nue jeweler, Manny Gattle, a picturesque 
character of the period. Among his ex¬ 
pensive gifts, made of precious stones, were 
designs reading, “Merry Christmas” which, 
of course, could be worn on no other day 

ships. A Pittsburgh hotel, for instance, 
expected him to sleep on a three-quarters 
bed with one mattress and. two pillows. 
Caruso demanded a double bed, three mat¬ 
tresses, and eighteen pillows. 

“Eighteen pillows, three mattresses, or 
no concert,” was the demand. So at one- 
thirty the hotel resounded with a hurry call 

Caruso was, contrary to general opinion, 
a very hard worker. His roles did not 
come easily to him. It took him consider¬ 
able time to prepare a new part and he 
never permitted himself to present a new 
role until he was sure of it. On tour much 
of his spare time was spent in drawing, in 
which he had a genius which, if it ^ had 

for the necessary comfortings. The entire been developed, would undoubtedly hart 
..... made him one of the greatest caricaturists 

r __, _ of the age. I treasure a caricature he made 
glad of the °f m e at the dinner table in Toledo. 

{In The Etude for next month Mr- 
Bernays will give his professional advice 
upon how the musician may promote his 
Professional interest through his relations 
to the public. —Editor’s Note.) 

personnel was in on the mobilization. * 
httle bell boys, one female housekeeper, 
Hungarian houseman, who was glad o 
opportunity to stand by while a Caruso 
ter was going on, one hotel manager, and 
an assistant! Closets were ransacked mat¬ 
tresses were dragged up in great quantities. 
And meanwhile the great tenor was sitting 


The Piano-Accordion in Musical 

. {Continued from Page 212) 


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Most rhythmic effects depend, not on the 
attack (as they do in accentuation on the 
piano) but on the control of the bellows. 
The touch required for the piano-accordion 
is more like that of the old reed organ or 
melodeon. In other words, what counts is 
not pressure or attack but sustained quality 
of tone, and this is managed exclusively by 
the bellows. While the instrument works 
something like a piano, its internal con¬ 
struction is totally different. Piano tones 
are obtained by a system of string vibra¬ 
tions. Piano-accordion tones (like those of 
the organ) depend on the open or closed 
state of a reed. Therefore, the quality of 
the vibrations and the consequent quality 
of the tones are not at all alike. That is 
why all nuancing and dynamic effects on 
the piano-accordion depend, not on the 
touch (which sets the piano strings in 
vibration) but on the control of the bellows 
(which determine the opening or closing of 
the vibrating reeds). 

There are endless interesting things to be 
said about the piano-accordion, even of its 
structure. Some instruments use the treble 
clef in both hands; but these are not to be 
advised in practice. They may be easier of 
approach for violinists, or flutists, who are 
accustomed to working in the treble clef 
alone; but they are less practical for pian¬ 
ists or organists, and they tend to limit the 
fullest scope of the instrument. It is better 
to use the bass clef for the left hand, and 
all the effects already recorded are calcu¬ 
lated on that basis. 

The problems of the piano-accordion? 
After the mastery of the left hand positions, 
of which we already have spoken pretty 
thoroughly, there are no very great diffi¬ 
culties which interest and plain hard work 
cannot overcome. The structural position 
of the left hand bass buttons needs to be 
learned, but the fingering itself is simple. 

The Repertoire 

I ET US CONSIDER, now, the literature 
-J at the disposal of piano-accordion 

players. For the present, they resort chiefly 
to orchestral parts in ensemble work, and 
accompaniments and arrangements of the 
classics, when the instrument is used by 
itself. The piano-accordion is still too new 
to have given rise to much of an individual 
library. The one man who has done more 
than any other, perhaps, in developing 
piano-accordion literature is Pietro. 

So far, the greatest use to which the 
piano-accordion has been put is, as I have 
said, in orchestral work and in accompany¬ 
ing. It is ideal for the accompaniment of 
glee clubs or harmonica orchestras. It is 
useful, too, as a solo instrument—for out- 
of-door parties or, more seriously, in class 
rooms that are not equipped with pianos. 
Its solo possibilities, however, have been 
scarcely sounded out, as yet. The instrument, 
as an instrument, is new. Further, it has not 
yet acquired the full position of dignity 
which time doubtless will prove it to 
possess. But, when we consider the strides 
that have been made by other instruments, 
we cannot help but feel that the piano- 
accordion, too, will one day emerge, not as 
a “stunt machine” or a plaything, but as a 
valuable instrument for the making of digni¬ 
fied and worthy music. We will see the 
time come, undoubtedly, when there will be 
solo virtuosi on the piano-accordion. In 
the meanwhile, it may be considered some¬ 
what in the same light as the oboe or the 
bassoon, which, while they scarcely share 
the solo spotlight of the piano or the violin, 
nevertheless have a distinct and useful place 
in the family of musical instruments. The 
advantage which the piano-accordion has 
over these is that it can be used satisfac¬ 
torily by itself, and that it provides really 
a quite lovely means of expressing musical 
color and atmosphere. Most encouraging 
results have been experienced in my own 
work with music-students who have taken 
up the piano-accordion both for its orches¬ 
tral value and its solo fun. Students are 
urged to “get in on” its pleasures as well 
as its educational values. 

Why Every Child Should Have A 
Musical Training 

By H. B. Baughman 

{One of the letters zvhich just missed winning a 
prise in our recent contest under the above heading) 

T HE PROGRESS of the human race, 
from its infancy to the present time, 
has been brought about by the intellects 
that have been developed and stimulated by 
mental activity. Mental activity is the 
continuous usage of the mentality outside 
the furrows of thought that are called in¬ 
stinct. Intelligent and constructive think¬ 
ing, apparently, is not a gift of the “gods” 
but is attained through continuous effort 
along lines that demand concentration, not 
for a day only but indefinitely. Brain de¬ 
velopment in the child should begin as soon 
as individual thinking is apparent, and this 
is at a very early age in some children. 
Music appears io be the most appropriate 
“mental food” that can be afforded as a 
stimulant to a new mentality. 

The earliest possible mental development 
of the child cannot be over-estimated, and 
music as a means for this has no equal. It 
offers the seed of concentration which, 
properly cultivated, is the secret of success, 
the foundation of all achievement; not only 
in the musical world, but in the business 
and social world as well. The progress of 
humanity is based upon the intelligence of 
the individuals constituting it. Future 

progress, compared with today’s, will be as 
a mighty storm to a gentle breeze; and 
music will be one of the most important 
factors, if not the most important, in this 
onrush of civilization. 

The child of today is the adult of to¬ 
morrow. The adult of tomorrow must 
cope with the conditions that tomorrow 
presents; and the ability of the individual 
to combat these conditions depends upon 
his or her mental development. The study 
of music offers more for this purpose than 
any other single item. It offers, among the 
many, the development of taste for the 
finer things of life—the things that should 
be the choice of all who have the privilege 
of choosing. Being prepared for life, as 
music helps to prepare the individual, is a 
boon to the receiver and a gift that no 
parent should fail to present. 

All should discern the truth supreme in 
the expression, “Music Study Exalts Life.” 
Not only does it exalt life but it also adds 
to life a pleasure and a joy that make living 
worth more and that can be attained in 
no other way. Thus there becomes an 
urgent reason “Why Every Child Should 
Have a Musical Training.” 



M ade in A.merica—Played ’Everywhere 
AMONG the compositions played by 
AX the famed Minneapolis Symphony 
Orchestra, during its recent five weeks’ 
tour, was Suite for the Ballet, "The 
Machine Man”, by Eugene Zador. The 
composer included an accordion in the 
orchestration. A stock model Wurlitzer 
Accordion was played by Mr. Fred 
Ruhoflf, of the Symphony. He says, 
"The tone quality and construction of 
the Wurlitzer Accordion is unsurpassed, 
and it blends perfectly with the or¬ 
chestra”. The Wurlitzer is the ideal 
accordion for solo and orchestral work. 
Write today for catalog and price list. 
DeKalb, Illinois 





Ranging from the magnificent 120 bass 
“Artists Model” Illustrated above, selling at 
$450, to the simple 8 bass $29 model shown 
below, there Is a Hohner Piano Accordion 
suited to every purpose and every price. 

All Hohner instruments, regardless of size 
or price, are uniform in their mechanical per¬ 
fection and rich tonal qualities. 

For the hours of pleasure they provide, for 
musical training, and for pride of possession, 
Hohner Piano Accordions are universally 
recognized as “The World’s Best.” Instruction 
-upplle- ”--’-“ 

Book supplied free with every Instrument. 

APRIL, 1936 


Established in 1857 
Chicago Conservatory is 
America's First Music School 

Distinguished faculty of 165 
teaching all branches of 
Music and Dramatic Art. 

Fully accredited courses 
leading to degrees of 
Bachelor and Master of 
Music and Dramatic Art. 

Public School Music, O. E. Robinson; Piano 
Normal Courses, Edgar Brazleton; Special 
Repertoire and Interpretation Classes, Glenn 
Dillard Gunn and Edgar Nelson; Band, 
George De Witt; Dramatic Art, Class Piano 
Normal, Theory Classes, under the direction 
of expert teachers. 


First Summer Term—May I I-June 20 
Major Summer Term—June 22-August I 
Third Summer Term—August 3-Sept. 12 
Fall Term Opens Sept. 14 

Write for Catalogue A 

Chicago Conservatory is a Provisional Member 
of National Association of Schools of Music 

APPLIED MUSIC—including Voice, Violin, Piano, Organ, 
Cello and all Orchestral Instruments. 

Faculty includes Wesley LaViolette, Sergei Tarnowsky, 
Richard Czerwonky, Blanche Barbot, Walter Knupfer, John 
D. Sample, Margaret and William Lester, Oscar Deis, Rev. 
George Massey, David Nyvall, Helen Howe, Nellie Moench. 
Courses given University credit. For catalog write Arthur C. Beclter, Dean 


A professional school 
in a university environment 

For Free Bulletins Write to 


1830 Sherman Avenue 
Evanston, Illinois 



When Every Gentleman Was a Musician 

(Continued from Page 243) 

the lute and cittern, which differed from 
one another in their shape-the back of 
the lute was pear-shaped and that of the 
cittern flatbacked, besides which the lute 
had gut strings to be plucked with the 
fingers and the cittern had wire strings to 
be played with a plectrum, a device for 
plucking the strings. Other instruments 
were, the sackbut, an early name for trom¬ 
bone, the flute, the recorder, and the regals, 

Advent of the Ensemble 

A LTHOUGH MUSIC formed such an 
.important part in the lives of the 
Elizabethans, it was generally confined to 
solo performances. But gradually string 
music became popular, and during the reign 
of James I it steadily grew in popularity. 
In 1599 Morley published a “First Book of 
Consort Lessons” for six string instru¬ 
ments. A consort was the name given to 
instruments of the same family. For ex¬ 
ample, there were a consort of viols and a 
consort of recorders. A broken consort 
consisted of different kinds of instruments. 

In considering the foremost masters who 
were famed for their work from 1520 to 
1620, many musicologists feel that the first 
outstanding figure to attract attention was 
Christopher Tye (died in 1572). His most 
notable achievement seems to have been a 
doggerel versification of the first fourteen 
chapters of the Acts of the Apostles (the 
first two verses of each chapter were set 
to music). 

More Musical Worthies 

T HOMAS TALLIS, sometimes spelled 
Talys or Tallys (died 1585), was a 
really very able organist and composer, 
exhibiting much invention in his melodies 
and their treatment. One of his tunes 
(Evening Hymn) is included in most pres¬ 
ent day hymnals. His anthems still remain 
very greatly in use. He was a Gentleman 
of the Chapel Royal during the reigns of 
Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary and Eliza¬ 
beth. For a time he was a joint organist 
with Byrd. In 1575 he and Byrd obtained 
a kind of monopoly for printing music and 
ruled music paper. This Byrd held for 
twenty-one years, but it proved very un¬ 
profitable. Tallis was a voluminous com¬ 
poser. He is properly called “The Father 
of English Cathedral Music” ; and, when it 
is remembered that he died exactly one 
hundred years before the birth of Bach 

and Handel, this English contemporary 
of Palestrina seems even more remarkable 

William Byrd (Bird, Byrde, Birdt 
Byred, Berd), “the greatest of the Eliza¬ 
bethan musicians,” was bom in London in 
1538 and died there in 1623. While some 
British commentators feel that he was at 
times excelled in religious music by Tallj s 
in performance by Bull, and by several 
madrigal composers, his versatility and his 
genius were so great in all fields that he 
towers above most of his contemporaries 
He was an excellent organist and greatly 
enriched the musical literature of his day. 
Among many other achievements he was 
the inventor of the variation form. He be¬ 
came a staunch Romanist and suffered 
much persecution for this in his later years. 

Dr. John Bull was bom in Somerset! 
shire in 1562 (Shakespeare was born two 
years later). He died in 1628 in Antwerp. 
He was one of the outstanding performers 
of his day, both in England and on the 
continent. He was made a Music Doctor 
by Oxford in 1592. Queen Elizabeth se¬ 
cured for him the position of Professor of 
Music at Gresham College in 1596. In 1612 
he became organist for the Archduke of 
Brussels, and, in 1617, organist for the 
Notre Dame Cathedral in Antwerp. Hd 
wrote over two hundred compositions. 
Bull's music is by no means all of equal 
merit and falls below that of Tallis, Byrd 
and others in inspiration. 

It would require volumes to review ade¬ 
quately the work of such Elizabethan com¬ 
posers as Gibbons, Farnaby, Dowland (friend 
of Shakespeare), Rosscter, Campion, Jones, 
Weelkes, Wilbye, Ferrabasco, and scores 
of other fine gentlemen who lived in this 
brilliant period. 

One significant fact should be noted. 
Although in the Thirteenth Century in 
Spain there seems to have been a degree 
of “Mastership in Music" conferred, the 
first Bachelor of Music on record was 
Henry Habyngton, at Cambridge Uni¬ 
versity in England, who received it in 1463. 
Twenty-nine years later, probably playing 
in some vaulted cathedral, he may have 
learned for the first time that the world 
was really round and not flat and that an 
Italian named Columbus had actually sailed 
across the sea and discovered what he 
thought to be India, which he was able to 
prove by the “Indians” he brought back 
with him. So much for the music culture 
of merrie old England twenty-eight years 
before Henry VIII was born. 

Music Study Extension Course 

(Continued from Page 216) 



JT A ' 


Answering Etude Adver¬ 
tisements always pays 
and delights the reader. 

; J 



An Endowed Professional School, Nationally 
Accredited. Full B. Mas. Degree and Diploma 
Courses. College Environment. Teachers of 
National Reputaf— A -* : “*“* n -- 

For Catalogue. 


Easily — Substantially—Pleasantly 
Take Subscriptions for 


—Write Jot particulars — 




s thoro training in music. Courses leading tc 
telor of Music Degree, Diploma and Certifi- 
™ in^Piamh Voice.^Violin^ Organ. Public^ School 

Bulletin sent fret upon request 




Catalog upon application 

Mr. and Mrs. Crosby Adams 

Montreat, North Carolina, 1936 


Atlanta, Ga. June 8-13 

Montreat, N. C. July 23-29 

By A. Louis Scarmolin 
Practice in teaching half steps and whi 
steps is afforded in Parade of the Shat 
and Flats Its ascending and descend) 
chromatic figures are divided between t 
hands for the most part, and are design 
to develop precision in interlocking n; 
sages. Establish a good March tempo 
the beginning of the composition and ke 
strict time thereafter. 

By R. N. Kerr 

This simple Grade I melody from 1 
pen of Robert Nolan Kerr has a deal rJ 
pedagogical value than appears at ft 
glance. Firstly it affords opportunity f 

the study of triads and their inversions. 
Secondly it provides practice in playing 
simple broken chords. Thirdly, trills come 
in for a share of attention—even if they 
are in quarter notes, as is proper for a first 
grade piece. Fourthly, the piece is extreme¬ 
ly tuneful. 

By James H. Rogers 
In tune with April is this little composi¬ 
tion of James Rogers from whom something 
out of the ordinary is always to be expected. 

Rain Patter is catchy, tuneful, and an 
excellent little etude for the development of 
wrist staccato. This particular number 
calls for a delicate staccato —in other words 
a light, bouncing wrist capable of apply^ 
a rather shallow touch. 

Altogether an excellent teaching piece. 

, queries us that mt. 
Mzint ePend UP ° n hUman a9el 

a movement, and one that does not so 
upon its own natural laws.” —Mr. Basil 


the etude 


Bel Canto Studios and Opera Academy 


announces special summer courses 

For Students, Singers and Teachers 

June 22 to August 1, 1936 


Chicago, El. 

Until June 20 and after August 1, at the Los Angeles studios. 

Winter Session follows immediately. 

For lessons with Mr. Samoiloff personally make reservations now. 

Everything for a singer. 

Well Known Artists Who Have Studied with Lazar S. Samoiloff: 

Curt Taucher, Clair Dux, Helen Stanley, Nelson Eddy, Bianca Saroya, Dmitri Onofrei, Julia 
Claussen, Gabrielle Besanzoni, Maria Luisa Escobar, Consuelo Escobar and many others. 




“If I Were asked, ‘With whom shall I study Voice, 3 1 Would say Samoiloff. Why? Because his 
teaching is based on sound, sensible laws. Because he makes it all Very simple and clear. 
Because he brings about progress in amazingly^ short time. Because he has produced great 
singers and because his pupils show remarkable development and are happy in their work. He 
showed me fundamentals I had overlooked for years and helped me make quick, definite 
advancement. It is a joy to study with him. 33 

(Signed) Nelson Eddy 

... sing in grand opera. 

scholarship open to a voice 
me to resume 

my Ktsms w,w. ».» . jachert 1 look 

forward to reading your column every month, 
'• - ■-* and helpful .—Miss Sincere. 

On Scholarships. 

O I am seventeen and have _ .„ 
voice which unbiased judges have 
great promise. I ~ 

Con you tell of 

like mine, that - 

my lessons with my jot 
forward to reading your 
it is so interesting and t...rj -•■ 

A. The difficulty in meeting your need is 
your requirement that you be able to resume 
lessons with your own teacher.. As a rule, 
scholarships are given for work in a specified 
institution. Mrs. John A. Jardine, of Fargo, 
North Dakota, President of the National 
Federation of Music Clubs, or the Atwater 
Kent Radio Corporation might be consulted. 
Tour voice and talent will have to be of 
quite superior calibre indeed to merit con¬ 
sideration: for, as you must be aware, there 
ire thousands of talented young sopranos in 
this country, with more preparation than 
yourself, who would like a free scholarship 
looking toward appearing in grand opera. The 
Institute of Musical Art, New York City, and 
the Curtis Institute, of Philadelphia, give 
tssistance to vocal students they deem worthy. 
Why make yourself an object of charity? 
Better, a thousand times, to seek some way 
of working for your tuition and expenses and 
so develop self-reliance and strength of char¬ 
acter while getting an education and thus pre¬ 
pare yourself to meet the world. Almost all 
schools and many private teachers have work 
to be done in exchange for tuition. Write to 
some of them, state your case clearly, and 
many of them will be found sympathetic to 
the young talent striving to make its way. 

Those Eternal “Nerves.” 

9- What should one do to avoid being 
timid, or nervous, when singingt —Mrs. I. M. 

A. If one could put out a bottle containing 
an infallible remedy for your trouble, inclu- 
aion for taxation in the millionaire class 
would quickly become his fate. It cannot be 
However, just before singing, relax the 
whole body, take a series of slow rhythmic, 
silent, deep brenths. hut make no special 
physical effort in doing so. Close the eyes 
during this exercise. Previously, make sure 
that you know your piece so well that if 
necessary you could sing words and music 
from memory and without instrumental ac- 
compamment Try it. whistling or humming 
J? el °dy of preludes and interludes. Know 
“S 1 / what you are going to do at ail special 
points of the piece: how you are going to 
.aIvL P y ™ r olimaxes, make your musical 
. ts of force and color, and your im¬ 
portant accents and emphases. And above all, 
with a burning desire to put 
wm LT eS ?- a .?!' t0 your a "flience. Then you 
aTe Bttle opportunity to be thinking 
mef“Ls 0,ee I and ' what think of 

met and so to get “fussy” or “nervous.” 

Tempo Problems. 

new so 1 njt Vkat * hould govern the tempo of a 



By Frederick W. Wodeil 

No questions will be answered in THE ETUDE unless accompanied by the full name 
and address of the inquirer. Only initials, or pseudonym given, will be published. 

help to fin'd the tempo by 
> words, OTw1 “' 7 “ r 

ition and thus pre- the accompanimi 

2.—Should ( 
reading over a 
A. 1.—We < 

reading aloud the words, over ana over, 
striving to make the meaning plain by verbal 
accent, emphasis, inflection and tone color, 
and reading now faster, now slower, as it 
seems the message of the text requires. We 
must ask ourselves, does it sound natural, 
appropriate? When at least fairly well satis¬ 
fied, and having learned the music, if we en¬ 
deavor to sing as we read, we shall come 
reasonably near to finding a good tempo. 

mi- *•-- melody shows much use of the 

‘“e composer - jjgg jg 

a few minutes at a time, 
powerful singing, nor worryii 

or low notes. Use all the vov_ „ 

' result in tone quality is satisfactoi 

ipass, and ^for only 

; the 

r three notes t 

vowel; also with a light ....-„- 

is no downward pressure of the muscle up 
under the chin on this letter. The point is 
to start singing without “click” or “breathi¬ 
ness,” and to coax the voice rather than to 
compel it in the least. A little practice on 
’ and arpeggi on Ye, Ye~ 

indie,-it i—_ 

m[lc ^ __e. Complex, and 

frequently changing harmonies need more time 
(a slower tempo) to make themselves proper¬ 
ly felt than do simple chords. The printed 
marks are not always to be relied upon. 
Often they relate more to the style of delivery 
than to the tempo. 

2 —First read over the words, as suggested, 
and you will be likely to adopt a fairly good 
tempo, whether you think of that point or 
not. If the music is so written as to marked¬ 
ly contradict the tempo indications of the 
verbal text, better try another song. Always 
use accurate note values, whatever the rate at 
which you sing. 

Tonsils, Always With TJs 

Q. I always read your section of Ques¬ 
tions and Answers in The Etude, and find it 
very helpful. Here is my question: I had my 
tonsils removed. They were in a very bad 
condition I want to take care of my throat 
so as not to injure my voice. How long 
should I wait before singing again, and how 
shall I go about starting practice to prevent 
over-taxation or strain of any sort? — Mrs. 
Q. R. 

A. Yonr specialist, if a go< 
be able to tell you when you 

■ sing. Be in no hurry abou- 

■ * leisure. On the other hand, c 

and Yaw, lightly, i 

Of -X.4_ —4- 

t he 

___ a quick, free dropping 

n, the tongue-tip remaining against 

_ front teeth, may later be indulged 

Sing on this work demi-staccato. Only 


a good one. i 

epent at leisure. On the other nana, careful 
, oice use, under the advice of surgeon and 
teacher, should not be too long delayed. After 
the operation there are new adjustments of 
the parts to be managed for speech and song. 
Practice with very light, clear, conversational 

___ teacher in 

....... . Pennsylvania, could best train 

my very high coloratura voice, which is weak 
in the middle register? I especially want to 
avoid a teacher who forces the voice, creates 
a tremolo, or other affectations. —-Musicus. 

A. At least you know some things ' 
in a teacher of singing. Go - 

name, make inquiry as to wl_ _ 

has for a series of years, from average pupi.~, 
been bringing out those who sing with good 
quality of tone, clear diction, and at least 
fair expressiveness. Then hear several pupils, 
and make your own judgment. The choice 
of a teacher is so important to the student 
that it pays to put time, intelligent effort, and 
if necessary some money into it. 

A Sheaf of Queries 

time I have had a fair amount of success, 
professionally. For radio, however, I have 
been told to improve my diction, breathing, 
and ending my words on higher tones. What 
should I do as to tone-placement or produc¬ 
tion to assist me to make my words clearer, 
more distinct and especially in the upper 
range of my voice? 

“ 1 — under the impression that the 

i —•--- production sacrifices 

S.—Why is my breathing so pronounced 
over the airt Would faulty breathing meth¬ 
ods make me breathe so heavilyT I do not, 
however, have much trouble in breathing 
while singing.-—Anxious Vocalist. 

A. 1.—When the words are not distinct, 
in any part of the range, it is a sign that 
there is a type of tone-production which em¬ 
barrasses, to a greater or lesser degree, the 
tongue and other parts involved in articu¬ 
lation. Do exercises which make the tongue 
independent of the jaw, such as the rapid 
repetition of 


on a monotone, varying the pitch, with dis¬ 
tinct utterance, and without the least move¬ 
ment of the lower jaw. Also use in the same 

the tone to be not louder than your natural 
mf. In doing the th let the tongue-tip pro¬ 
trude slightly between the teeth. 

We have noticed that those who are sing¬ 
ing what they call a “covered” tone, emit a 
sound which is comparatively dark, sombre, 
in color. One should be able to “color” the 
tone differently, according to the needs of 
expressive singing. One can sing so as to 
emit tone on high pitches proper to the given 
voice, without so changing the vowel form, 
or shape as to cause uncertainty as to the 
word intended in the mind of the listener. 
Practice free vowel production upon your 
higher range, using what is known as “head” 
voice, leaving the articulating organs free to 
deal with final consonants. Try uttering the 
final “explosives” such as t and k, after the 
vowel has been sung, and without any rush 
of breath from the lungs—a pure mouth ex¬ 

“ -Most singers coming from Germany 

--* make rather more of distinct 

be very careful to sing with sostenuto style. Some have 
special fondness for the darker, more 
‘— throughout their singing. How- 

have seemed t 
diction than t_ ... 
a true legato and si 

sombre t( 

hibiting a wide variety of tone color for 
interpretative purposes, and a thoroughly 
musical legato style. There have always been 
good teachers of the so-called “Italian” 
method in Germany. 

3.—A good method of tone production ab¬ 
solutely demands a type of inhalation for 
singing which is silent. The microphone has 
simply shown up a defect in your work which 
you have not detected under other circum¬ 
stances. Your tone production will improve, 
as well as your singing in general, over the 
radio and elsewhere, when you have learned 
to inhale silently, and with as little effort as 
possible. Sing not from note to note or 
syllable to syllable, but make the “phrase” 
your singing unit, and learn to sing the final 
note of each phrase poised as though you 
expected to go on singing at least half of 
another phrase, without renewing yonr breath 
Then your breath will seem to renew itself, 

s cor- for you. 

APRIL, 1936 

There are many reasons for sum¬ 
mer study. To get out of a rut— 
seek new material—modernize 
methods—round out training— 
strengthen standing by earning 
a nationally recognized Certifi¬ 
cate, Diploma, or Degree. 

Whatever your aim, you will 
find the training you want at our 


Seventy-five teachers available 
through entire summer. Series 
of 18 free concerts and recitals. 
Dormitory accommodations and 
practice facilities. 

Send fo 

Private instruction in Piano, 
Voice, Violin, Organ, Cello, Wind 
Instruments, Theory, Composi¬ 
tion, Dramatic Art and Dancing. 
Special short-term classes in 50 
subjects, including Piano Master 
Class, Piano Normal Class, 
Teaching Repertoire, Class 
Piano, Violin Master Class, Voice 
Master Class, Organ Master Class, 
Public School Music, Band, Or¬ 
chestra and Choral Conducting, 
Theory, Composition, Play Pro¬ 
duction, Microphone Technique, 
and many others. 

Reduced tuition rates; de¬ 
ferred payment plan. 




| istiof MUSIC 

n thorough Instruction in — 
B. degree. Forty-six specialist 

^Jljp Qlrfaflanfijhalitutr uf (T)uatr 

Confers Bachelor of Music Degree, Master of Music Degree, Artist Diploma 
Public School Music Course in conjunction with Western Reserve University 
BERYL RUBINSTEIN, Director, 2605 Euclid Avenue. Cleveland, Ohio 

(fonscrUatorQ °‘Ittu$ic 

America’s Oldest Independent School Devoted 

^ 1936 S^mWe R SESSIONS^ 

2650 Highland Ave. and Oak Street, Cincinnati, Ohio 


Complete curricula leading to degrees in 
all branches of Music. Faculty or distin¬ 
guished artist teachers. Concerts and May 
Festival by world’s greatest artists and 
organizations in Hill Auditorium seating 
5,000. Chorus of 350; student symphony 
orchestras, glee clubs, bands, etc. Recitals 
each week on $75,000 organ. 

[T Eight-week "T| 

J Summer Session II 

li. June 29-August 21 JJ 


Box 1004. Ann Arbor. Michigan 



Carl J. Waterman, Dean 
public school ^music and choir directing leading to 


'acuity of 84 artists. Accredited Teachers? Certificates’, 
liplomas. and ^Degrees.^ Ilesirable^boarding accommoda- 

iddrestH. B. MANVILLE, Bus.’ Manager 

Dept. 2-52 Putnam Ave., Detroit. Mich. 

"Practical standardization might compel adequate competency for music 
teaching. But nobody so far has created a safe and reasonable table of rules 
for standardization, and the whole topic is a dangerous weapon with which to 
trifle. In any case. Heaven spare us that day therein we see high-brow 
irreconcilables evolve standardisation rules, politicians putting them into 
effect, and bootleg teachers as an aftermath.” —John L. Bratton. 

Fifty Years Ago This Month 

M. Marks, in an article on "The Gradual 
Development in the Science o 
Pianos,” introduced a hlstor , ICa ‘ ^“‘ r^t 
which we reproduce as an index o he fart 
that controversial discussion would se 
he aeeless This is from the Introduction 
to “Instructions for Playing the Harpsi¬ 
chord” by Robert Falkener printed and 

sold in 1774, at his house, No. 45, Salis¬ 
bury Court, Fleet Street, London. 

“No person can be said to be accom¬ 
plished in any art or science unless he 
thoroughly understands it. Grammar, 
Logic, Rhetoric, Arithmetic, Geometry, 
Astronomy, and Music are, by way of ex¬ 
cellence, called the Liberal Sciences; and, 
in the present age, none of them is more 
practiced than music, nor is there anything 
less understood. I say less understood, be¬ 
cause, were the present practitioners in¬ 
structed. in the right rules of harmony, it 
would be impossible for our modern Pro¬ 
fessors to impose upon the ears of the 
public their wretched compositions, whose 
parts are so poorly united as neither to 
soothe passion, raise devotion, nor animate 

pieces he composed for the entertainment 
of the public, was extremely cautious not 
to admit anything that might excite mean 
or lewd ideas; because, whenever this hap¬ 
pens, it loses its good effect on the audience, 
and, like bad plays, becomes a general evil. 
But the thirst for novelty in the present age 
is so insatiable that nothing will go down 
but what is new; to usher which into the 
world there hath not been only a total 

neglect of the melodious strains of Handel 
but an indefatigable industry in our crafty 
masters to render the whole science of 
music so difficult and intricate, that scarce 
one in a hundred ever comes to a competent 
knowledge thereof, but are led on from 
lesson to lesson, with Appoggiaturas, Syn¬ 
copations, Arpeggios, Mordents, Mezzo 
Trillos, Semitones major, Semitones minor 
extreme sharp seconds, and flat thirds, with 
a thousand other needless perplexities, till 
tired with the study and sick with the ex¬ 
pense, they get up as ignorant of the matter 
as when they sat down. 

“Therefore, in opposition to these dark- 
eners of science, and for the benefit of 
every rational being, I have laid down the • 
following rules, in as plain a manner as I 
can possibly devise, wherein I have care¬ 
fully avoided all superfluous examples, and 
have only inserted what is necessary to 
form in the mind a just notion of harmony 
and discord; which, if the reader can at¬ 
tain, my task is finished; he has then my 
free will to enter into the most minute and 
trifling degrees of sound; and if he does 
not approve of the twelve half tones in the 
octave as it stands at the present, he may 
divide it into four and twenty, and make 
instruments with sliding Stops, etc, to 
show the deficiency of former ages, and his 
own consummate abilities; in a word, he 
may join Dr. Swift’s company of Aca¬ 
demicians, and extract sunbeams from cu¬ 
cumbers.” (Delicious irony, prophetic of 
some ear-splitting experimentations of re¬ 
cent years with much of music reminiscent 
of a steam riveter.—Editor.) 

Memory Book Pages of a Musical Pilgrim 

(Continued from Page 254) 

truly national song, Hail Columbia, was 
written in Philadelphia, by Joseph Hopkin- 
son, son of Francis, and first sung there on 
April 25, 1798; and, perhaps most sig¬ 
nificant, the first serious American opera, 
the “Leonora” of William Henry Fry, was 
written and first performed June 4, 1845, 
in “Penn’s Towne”; a few among many 
of the city’s historical “musical births.” 

An atmosphere of serenity and peaceful 
amicability prevails in Philadelphia, and 
rightly was it named “City of Brotherly 
Love,” for it has kept faith with the teach¬ 
ings of its Colonial Patron, William Penn, 
whose colossal statue looks benignly down 
from City Hall Tower. This spirit of 
harmony and understanding covers the 
broad state of Pennsylvania, and in such 
an environment was born the gentle souled 
genius, Stephen Collins Foster (Lawrence- 
ville, now a part of Pittsburgh, 1826-64), 
America’s foremost writer of folk songs ; 
and years later came another Pennsylvania 
son, likewise blessed with traits of warm¬ 
hearted tenderness, Ethelbert Nevin (Edge- 
worth, 1862-1901). 

Other musicians’ names on the state 
roster are, Ira D. Sankey, evangelist-singer 
and composer (1840-1908) ; Theodore 
Presser, pioneer publisher (1848-1925) • 
Adolph M. Foerster (1854-1927), teacher 
and composer; Camille Zeckwer (1875- 
1924), pianist, teacher, composer; David S. 
Bispham (1857-1921), internationally known 
baritone; James Gibbons Huneker (1860- 
)®)l and Winton J Baltzell (1864- 
19_8) ; the last two being eminent music 
writers and critics. 

Continuing down the Atlantic slope we 
entered another state, Delaware, and in 
crossing its northwest section passed 
through Newark—a smaller town than its 
namesake in New Jersey. Though small it 
is distinguished as being the birthplace of 
Emma Louise (Mrs. E. L.) Ashford 
(1850-1930), a widely-known corner of 

sacred music and other forms, who lived 
the greater part of her useful musical life 
in Nashville, Tennessee. 

A southern course carried us through 
other cities and hamlets of interest and im¬ 
portance, and along historic old trade- 
routes, soon to approach Baltimore, the 
birthplace of our national anthem, The 
Star Spangled Banner; for here is Fort 
McHenry, from whose "ramparts there 
gleamed the broad stripes and bright stars” 
that inspired the patriot-son of Maryland, 
Francis Scott Key (1780-1843) to pen, in 
1814, the immortal lines. 



Stars And Stripes Forever (6 Hands), 
John Philip Sousa (Washington, D. C) 
In Colonial Days, W. M. Felton (Penn¬ 

Courtly Dance, George Dudley Martin 


The Rosary, Ethelbert Nevin (Pennsyl¬ 

An Old Portrait (Romance), James 
Francis Cooke (Pennsylvania) 


My Days Have Been So Wondrous Free, 
Francis Hopkinson (Pennsylvania) 

Old Folks At Home, Stephen Collins 
Foster (Pennsylvania) 

The Ninety and Nine, Ira David Sankey 

Listen to the Mocking Bird, Septimus 
Winner (Pennsylvania) 

Hail Columbia, Joseph Hopkinson 

Battle Hymn of the Republic (Civil War 
Era), Verses by Julia Ward How* 
(New York) 

The Star Spangled Banner, Francis 
Scott Key (Maryland) 



World of Music 

(Continued from Page 200) 


John Erskine, President 

ISTS’ announces its Thirty-fifth Annual 
Convention to be held from June 21st to 24th, 
1936 at Minneapolis. Full details may be 
had from C. W. Gould, convention manager, 
64 South 11th Street, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 


a symphonic poem by Ernest R. Kroeger, 
was at the head of the program of the St. 
Louis Symphony Orchestra for January 24th 
and 25th; when it was played as a memorial 
to this American master musician who spent 
his whole life in the service of music in that, 

THE OLDEST London Competition Festi¬ 
val is that of Stratford and East London. Its 
fifty-fourth festival will fall this year on April 
23rd to May 14th. Nine challenge shields, 
thirty silver cups, one hundred and seventy 
eold silver and bronze medals, and first and 

ist, critic, translator, and fervid advocate of 
“Opera in English,” died on January 14th, 
in New York. Born June 7, 1852, at Hove, 
near London, England, of naturalized Rus¬ 
sian parents, his linguistic ability (he knew 
seven languages fluently) brought him con¬ 
siderable renown as the translator of foreign 
drama and opera. 

4 -»• 

of Prague opened its subscription season 
with a performance of the “Requiem” of 
Dvorak, with Vaclav Talich conducting, and 
with Julia Nessy, Marta Krasova, Josef 
Viavec and Rudolf Watzke as the quartet 
of soloists. 

SARY of the first performance of “Lucia di 
Lammermoor,” at Naples in 1835, has been 
celebrated at Bergamo, birthplace of Doni¬ 
zetti, the composer, by the authorities of the 
city going in procession to the Basilica of 
Santa Maria Maggiore where the monumental 
tomb of the composer was decorated with 
floral offerings. 

land’s most successful composer of “best 
seller” popular songs, died in London, on 
December 11, 1935, at the age of fifty-seven. 
His Until and Friend o’ Mine each sold more 
than a million copies, while more than a 
dozen of his others passed the quarter of a 
million mark. 


TIVAL of the Allied Arts offers numerous 
prizes and scholarships of One Hundred to 
One Thousand Dollars, in Music, Drama and 
Speech Arts, Dance, Art, Poetry, and Cine¬ 
matography, in a contest to be held from May 
4th to 29th, 1936. Open to all America. Par¬ 
ticulars may be had from Mrs. Grace Widney 
Mabee, 1151 South Broadway, Los Angeles, 

IDGE PRIZE of one thousand dollars is 
offered, in a competition open to composers 
of all nationalities, for a chamber music work 
for four stringed instruments. Compositions 
must be submitted before September 30th, 
1936; and particulars may be had from the 
Coolidge Foundation, Library of Congress, 
Washington, D. C. 


George A. Wedge, Director 

JULY 7 TO AUGUST 14, 1936 
Accredited courses leading to the Bachelor of Science degree 


Katherine Bacon 
Sascha Gorodnitzki 
Alton Jones 
Muriel Kerr 
Guy Maier 
Arthur Newstead 
Lee Pattison 


Hugh Porter 


Louis Bostelmann 
Samuel Gardner 
Sascha Jacobsen 
Charles Krane 
Louis Persinger 


Lucia Dunham 
Fraser Gange 
Charles Hackett 
Belle Soudant 
Ruth H. Stewart 
Bernard Taylor 
Ella E. Toedt 

Marie Miller 

Special Courses for the Music Educator 

Primary and Secondary School Methods. Mabelle Glenn 

Orchestral Conducting and Orchestration. Adolf Schmid 

Group Voice Methods and Choral Conducting. Bernard Taylor 

Orchestra, and Instrumental Instruction..J. P. Russell 

Violin Methods and Materials...Louis Persinger 

Piano Methods and Materials. Guy Maier 

Voice Methods and Materials. Fraser Gange 

Layman’s Music Normal Course..... Harriet Johnson 

The Gist of Music. George Wedge 

Modern Orchestration and Modern Harmony. Roy Harris 

Theory of Music Orchestral Instruments 

For information address 


Taught in Paris—Rome—Nice—New York 
Teacher of stars of screen, stage and radio, 
Artists of opera and concert. 

Made five transcontinental Master-Class tours 

Free summer scholarship of two lessons weekly 
to most talented singer making application. 
Contest to be held in Hollywood. Scholarship 
blank on request. 

2150 Beachwood Dr., Hollywood, Calif. 

130 Claremont Avenue Room 221A New York, N. Y. 


Near San Francisco, California 

SUMMER SESSION of MUSIC—June 22 to August 1 (6 weeks) 

Complete Curricula Leading to Degrees in All Branches of Music 
Faculty of Distinguished Artist Teachers 

Guest Teachers 

Marcel Maas noted pianist and teacher of Brussels, Belgium 
Pro Arte String Quartet of Brussels, Belgium 
A residential summer school for men and women. Dormitories on cam¬ 
pus. Many recitals and concerts. Summer or Winter bulletin on request. 

Address—L uther Brusie Marchant 

Dean of the School of Music 
85th Year Mills College P. O. California 



Eminent Pianist and Master Teacher 


JULY 14 to AUGUST 25—1936 (6 Weeks) 

Contest for National Mirovitch tree Scholarship 
July 13 in Los Angeles, Calif. 

Application Blank on Request 

Address Secretary 

2223 S. Cochran Ave., Los Angeles, California 




long beach, Calif. 


June, July, August, 1936 

Teachers Training Courses in Piano. Voice, Violin, etc. 
Folder on Bequest—Dormitories. 

Free and Partial Scholarships Awarded 


BD Allll Robert Braun, Director 

DnAUN Graduate School FottevUle, Fa. 


N. Irving Hyatt, Dean, Spartanburg, S. C. 

Zoellner School 


2100 S. Western Ave., Los Angeles, Calif. 
Courses in Piano. Voice, Violin, Cello, Organ, 
Theory. Dramatic Art, String Ensemble 


KNOX Catalog Free Gale8t Wm.F. 1 Bentley,Director 


and Dramatis Art. Esther C. Benson, Ivi.ivi., t resident 
Mes City, ndont. 

Qo you take advantage of the many 
excellent merchandising oppor¬ 
tunities which ETUDE Advertising 
Columns offer you? 


Pipe Organ. Orchestra, Public School Music, Plano and 
Organ Tuning. Rates Reasonable. In the heart of the Shen¬ 
andoah Valley, Dayton, Virginia. 

Ami, me 




The University of Rochester 

Howard Hanson, Director 
Raymond Wilson, Assistant Director 

The orchestra of 110 students, 
band, ensembles and chorus broad¬ 
cast over NBC system, Thursdays, 
3:15 P. M., E.S.T. 

This is an endowed institution of 
national scope offering courses in 
all branches of music. The recog¬ 
nized University degrees, B.M., 
M.A. in Music, M.M. and Ph.D 
in Music are granted. 

Library facilities, physical equip¬ 
ment and University affiliation af¬ 
ford unusual opportunities for 
graduate study. 

Several yearly concerts enable 
composers to hear own works per¬ 

Summer Session June 22-July 25 

Due to limited enrollment early 
registration is advisable both for 
summer and winter sessions. 

The Placement Bureau has avail¬ 
able candidates for professional 
positions and for teaching in col¬ 
leges, public and private schools. 
Fall Session Opens September 22 

For Information and Catalogs Address: 

Arthur H. Larson, Secretary-Registrar 
Eastman School of Music, Rochester, N. Y. 

College of Fine Arts 

Syracuse University 

TVo-repc- Bachelor of Music 

uegrees. Master of Music 

Piano, Piano Teacher Training, Voice, 
Violin, Organ, Cello, Harp, Composition, 
Public School Music 

All the advantages of a large University. Special 
dormitory, with 35 practice pianos for women 
music students, 5 pipe organs 

SUMMER SESSION July 6 to Aug. 14 

For bulletin address 
Dean H. L. BUTLER 
Room 3 5, College of Fine Art. 
Syracuse, N. Y. 

$KSei\e SS TKe&tre 

VSSSr&Hff&t at., N. Y. 


Music on Pi an o, Voice, Violin and 
Develops all other Orchestral Instru' 
Culture” ments. Harmony and Com¬ 
position Counterpoint. 
Individual Instruction for beginners 

r or advanced students. Moderate 
Tuition fees. Dormitories—Branch 

Courses leading to the Degree of 
Bachelor and Master of Music. 
Pupils may enter at any time during 
the year. 

No High School Education re¬ 
quired except for the Bachelor and 
Master of Music Degree Courses. 


1812 Spring Carden St., Phila. 



The only Scientific Pedagogy based 
on Feeling, and practically 
applied to Music. 

I t Send for P M B circular. 


lW 103 East 86th St., New York, N. Y. 

Katherine Carey 

Successor to Mrs. Babcock's 


Church, Concert and School Positions Assured 

Carnegie Hall, New York Tel. Circle 7-2634 


Pre-School and Musical Kindergarten 


116 Edna Avenue, Bridgeport, Conn. 

Sliced Musical Puzzle, 35 cents 


International Dean of the revised and enlarged 
Dunning Course of Improved Music Study 

For dates and other information , address 

Secretary Western Office 

940 S. E. 68th Avenue, Portland, Oregon 


Alberto Jonas, Director, Plano Department 

All branches of music. Public School, Teachers' Training L 
Course. Dormitories for Women and office, 1331 S. Broad 

St., Philadelphia. Pa. s 

Dr. Gilbert Raynolds Combs, Founder < 



of the 



Thorough instruction in all branches of musical education. Private lessons 
in all standard instruments, courses in theory and composition, normal 
courses for teachers, methods of group training for children, preparatory 
courses for children, extension courses, and many others. 

Public School Music course leading to degree of Bachelor of Science with 
Major in Music. 

Catalog on request. 

120 Claremont Avenue, New York 

What Public School Music Needs 

(i Continued from Page 202) 

musicianship is demanded, and where the techniques of 
the school room are thoroughly mastered. 

Mr. George L. Lindsay, Director of Music Education, 

School District of Philadelphia: 

“For the pupils—Adequate time for (1) vocal and 
instrumental development and (2) opportunity for mass 
and individual expression and appreciation. For the 
teacher—Personality, leadership, cultural background, 
and musicianship.” , . , . , 

Dr. Joseph E. Maddy, Director of the famous National 
Music Camp, Interlochen, Michigan: 

“Music learning must be made more interesting. Many 
music teachers teach technic, not music. Students are 
not interested in technic, except as a means to an end— 
Music. When we can place musical education on an in¬ 
spirational basis, with technic following instead of 
leading, we will begin to realize the ideal of music edu¬ 
cation—‘Music for everyone, everyone for music.’ There 
are at least 30,000,000 unused musical instruments 
gathering dust in the homes of America. It is possible to 
put these to work by making music learning easier and 
more interesting.” 

Mr. Osbourne McConathy, noted Music Educator 
(former President Music Educators’ National Conference): 

“A more effective carry-over into adult life of the 
musical interests and activities started in the schoolg.” 
Dr. Victor L. F. Rebmann, Director of Music Educa¬ 
tion, City of Yonkers, New York: 

“The greatest present day need is the abolition of the 
effects of the late—or perhaps not so late—depression 
through (1) lightening the teaching load of the music 
teacher, who in too many places was required to do an 
inhuman amount of work; (2) the abatement of an ex¬ 
cessive exhibitionism, fostered and urged by many 
school administrators in their desire of justifying to a 
tax weary public the assessments levied for school pur¬ 
poses; and (3) the re-employment of needed teachers 
dismissed in the darkest days of economic stringency.” 
Mr. Glenn H. Woods, Supervisor of Music, Oakland, 

“Your question, ‘Wliat is the greatest present day need 
in the field of school music?’ can he answered in one 
word—‘protection.’ The educational world enjoys fol¬ 
lowing slogans and a new idea. The new slogan since 
the World War and its aftermath of depression, is the 
word ‘creative.’ The tendency educationally, is to try 
to administer music along educational lines regardless 
of the musical outcome. Educators will accept in music 
that which a musician with experience would discard. 
The creative idea is apparently running rampant, so 
much so that persons, who realize the preparation that 
is necessary to create music, know from experience that 
there is a limit to the writing of melodics and a place 
where harmony must command attention or further 
progress ceases. If your editorial could somehow impress 
educators with the importance of encouraging and en¬ 
dorsing music by suggesting that more progress and 
greater efficiency might evolve if the administration in 
music were left entirely to persons qualified by experi¬ 
ence and training to foster its contributions, it would 
do much for supervisors. If your message could reach 
them, encouraging their cooperation and interest in a 
larger activity in music in the schools, there is no ques¬ 
tion but that you would be doing many communities a 
great lavor. Progress can accrue only in proportion to 
the amount of freedom that the music administrators 
have to develop music as the ‘Art Beautiful.’ ” 


310 West 92nd Street New York City (At Riverside Drive) 

36th year Enter any day 

Diplomas and teachers certificates 



Advance of Publication 
Offers—April 1936 

All of the Forthcoming Publications 
in the Offers Listed Below are Fully 
Described in the Paragraphs Follow¬ 
ing. These Works are in the Course of 
Preparation. The Low Advance Offer 
Prices Apply to Orders Placed Now, 
with Delivery to be Made When 


Lindsay—lach ...". 

Evening Moods-Album of Piano Solos.... 

Fourth Year at the Piano-Williams. 

Piano Studies for the Grown-up Beginner 
Presser s Concert March Album for Or- 

chestra Parts, Each. 

Piano Accompaniment. 

Sabbath Day Solos—High Voice . 

Sabbath Day Solos—Low Voice . 

Sacred Choruses for Men's Voices . 

Singing Melodies—Piano Album 

Ten Tonal Tales—Piano—Locke . 

Third Year at thb Piano-Williams. 

Thirty Rhythmic Pantomimes — Riley, 

Gaynor and Blake. 

When Voices Are Changing—Chorus 
Book for Boys . 

Graduation Awards 

Graduates and 
honor pupils in 
music study should 
receive appropriate 
prizes, awards and 
gifts at Com¬ 
mencement time. 
An interesting 
book, or series of 
books on music, 
makes a satisfac¬ 
tory gift from par¬ 
ents, relatives and 
friends. Sometimes 
an attractive nov¬ 
elty in musical 
jewelry is choseu. 

The Theodore Presser Co. Catalog of Musi¬ 
cal Jewelry contains a number of desirable 
designs in medals, brooches and clasp pins 
that may be used as prizes and gifts to 
honor pupils for distinctive accomplishments 
in music. 

In this catalog, which may be had FREE 
lor the asking, there is also an illustrated list 
of diploma and certificate forms for music 
students. These are, indeed, a boon to music 
teachers. Graduation and promotion awards 
are printed by us in large quantities and the 
savings effected thereby are passed on to the 
individual teacher, who needs only a few 

A new style diploma or certificate form has 
recently been issued in the modem 10" x 8" 
size. This is printed on a very fine Parch¬ 
ment Deed stock and has an appropriate 
musical design and wording. It comes in three 
forms— Diploma, Certificate and Teacher’s 
Certificate. The price is 25 cents, postpaid. 
As recipients usually desire a holder for this 
size certificate or diploma, we carry in stock 
one style that may be used as an easel or 
hung on the wall, priced at $1-50, and we 
can supply moire-lined folders in imitation 
leather at $2.50. Genuine leather folders, 
moire, silk or satin-lined, will be made to 
order. Prices quoted upon application. Gold 
Seals with any desired two-color combina¬ 
tion of ribbons attached to diplomas or cer¬ 
tificates, 5 cents additional. 

. Another feature of “Presser Service” that 
is utilized annually at this season by many 
teachers is the special engraving on musical 
jewelry and engrossing on music certificates 
and diplomas of the recipient’s name and 
other pertinent data. Prices for this work 
cheerfully quoted. 

Greetings to the Music Educators 
National Conference! 

® Public school music in America is just one 
hundred years old. It all started in Boston in 
1836 and the man who was responsible for it 
still stands out as one of the greatest figures in 
all American musical development—Dr. Lowell 
Mason. He was a man of great ability, pene¬ 
trating foresight, splendid ideas, fine develop¬ 
ment and huge industry. Unfortunately, he was 
literally hounded out of his position in Boston 
by jealous nincompoops, now forgotten, who 
tried to belittle in every way his great popu¬ 
larity, his integrity and his competency—little 
whelps of men, biting at the heels of a giant. Dr. Mason’s inspira¬ 
tion came from the ideals of Pestalozzi, who was also a terribly 
misunderstood man. 

Fortunately, in this day, the world has grown broader and such 
a great institution as the Music Educators National Conference, 
which will bring thousands of supervisors to New York City this 
month, has done much to promote tolerance, broad understanding, 
sympathetic co-operation and to wipe out the poisonous political 
intrigue and conspiracy which at one time was not a pleasant 
thing to view in music education in our public schools. One of its 
greatest achievements has been what its influence has done towards 
the improvement of music of all kinds for public school use. This 
has raised the catalogs of American music publishers to a very 
much higher standard in this field. 

All honor to this splendid group of men and women, who are 
contributing so much toward America’s progress! 

iolin solo to what would otherwise be a 
formal series of piano numbers only. 

It is hardly necessary to remind teachers 
of the wide and effective use of piano 

Music for the Commencement *<£« h 

Program possible if the recital is confined strictly to 

Many « educators, and £, 

the material and have it in rehearsal. Others, 
whose programs are not elaborate, are now 
choosing the music that will be rendered by 

, . OI me Wide ana enecLive use ui jji.imy eu- 

H voufselection has been delayed and time semble numbers for one piano six hands and 
n your selection j eight hands, two pianos, four hands and eight 

does not P^ r f m ' fo % h f nds . Every pia L teacher knows the value 

I T^jLe Presser Co describing your of this form of practice and performance, 
needs-^the'capabilities ofthe “mJL/etc., The Presser Catalog heads aU others in the 
and expert clerks will make Tp and send to number and variety of its piano ensemble 
you a package of music from which you can 
select appropriate numbers. . „ 

This is but one feature of “Presser Service. 

Ask for Folder K-2, describing other con¬ 
veniences and economies, including the On 
Sale” plan. 

Pupils’ Recitals 

APRIL, 1936 

material. Ask for an assortment of these for 
examination and for our Hand Book of Music 
for Piano Ensemble sent gratis upon request. 

There are also unusual group numbers such 
as dances, drills and action songs. Complete 
programs suitable for pupils of varying capa¬ 
bilities are provided in the playlets In the 
Candy Shop (Adair) (50c); From Many 
Lands (Adair) (50c); also in the little piano 
We do not n»ed to convince teachers of suites Eight Hours at Our House (Bliss) 

the K 

inHeSon The value of such recftals is two- (Ryckoff) (75c) Most of these present op- 
okltotbe student, in reward for hard study port unities for effective but cos¬ 
and'practice and to the teacher as an oppor- turning. Any of them may be had for exaim- 

tunity to credlt f ° r Theodore Presser Co. is always prepared 

Fe WMe sufh recitals will naturally include to send examination copies of special musical 
numbers that have been faithfully studied material needed for recital programs. It is 
numbers tnat na , ;t ; s usua ]] y on l y necessary to give us an outline of the 

nec^aryorat fcLt advisable, to select pro- type of program planned and the ages or 
gram material that will provide for ensemble grades of the performers. 

8 Advertisement 

The Cover for This Month 

With a kindly, 
good-humored twinkle 
in his eyes, John Philip 
Sousa went about this 
world doing great 
things and winning 
the love and respect 
of all whom he met, 
from emperors, kings 
and presidents, down 
to the humblest of 
citizens and the poor¬ 
est of urchins. No one 

ever can measure how much John Philip 
Sousa meant to the United States with his 
stirring and virile compositions and with his 
entertaining and inspiring band concerts. His 
music and his band served the nation most 
beneficially in peace and in war. Music was 
his life, but he loved humanity, found elation 
in such sports as horseback riding, fishing, 
golfing, and trap shooting. He also is recog¬ 
nized as an author, and as a raconteur lus 
repute was great. 

This month’s cover of The Etude tells 
something of the story of his life in present- 
ing him as he appaared when he reached 
manhood, as he looked when he entered the 
service of the United States as leader of the 
Marine Band at Washington, as he looked 
when his band was a great drawing card for 
the Chicago World’s Fair, as he looked in 
the days of his world tours with the Sousa 
Band, as he looked at the time of his famous 
meeting in France with the celebrated French 
composer, Saint-Saens, as he looked when he 
had his great United States Naval Band dur¬ 
ing the World War, then as he looked in the 
last year of his life as Lieutenant-Commander 
John Philip Sousa of the United States Naval 
Reserve Force. He became leader of the 
United States Marine Band at Washington in 
1880 under the presidency of Rutherford B. 
Hayes and up until the time of his death 
during President Hoover’s term in office he 
brought forth unexcelled patriotic musical 
inspirations. He not only stirred the masses 
to love of country with his famous march. 
Stars and Stripes Forever, and other numbers 
such as Liberty Bell March, Hail to the Spirit 
of Liberty, Invincible Eagle, Keeping Step 
With the Union, Power and Glory, etc., but 
he also made for friendships of nations with 
such numbers as his Hands Across the Sea, 
Imperial Edward, Diplomat March, the Royal 
Wdch Fusiliers, and others. His music com¬ 
posing embraced band music from light en¬ 
tertaining numbers to works of symphonic 
proportions, songs, choruses, and comic 
operas. His compositions have been issued 
to provide for soloists of all types and are 
particularly popular in their piano arrange¬ 
ments, not only for solo but ensemble playing 
on this instrument. 

John Philip Sousa was active to the very 
last. He visited The Etude offices and the 
Theodore Presser Co. establishment just be¬ 
fore going to Reading, Pa., where he con¬ 
ducted a band concert; and the next day 
came the startling news that he had passed 
on. His death in Reading, Pa., came on 
March 6, 1932. 

Sousa’s music is said to possess more Amer¬ 
ican individualism than the music of any 
other American composer and his Stars and 
Stripes Forever march so thoroughly won 
the nation from the start that it is gener¬ 
ally conceded to be the accepted national 
march. It has become so much a part of 
the patriotic music of the country that it 
seems destined to live forever and perhaps 
many living today will see it adopted as the 
official patriotic march of the nation. Surely, 
as we listen to the radio and the musical 
backgrounds of news reels and motion pic¬ 
tures, Stars and Stripes Forever seems to 
stand out as the most played of all musical 

(Continued on Page 264) 


Third Year at the Piano 
Fourth Year at the Piano 

By John M. Williams 

nJ J . book. Amon £ them we find Circus Seals 

Thirty Rhythmic Pantomimes T<ypsy . T urvy, Mumblety-Peg, Woodp^t’ 

For Home , Kindergarten and Pre-Piano in t j ie Leap Frog, and Chimin 


Song Texts by Alice C D. Riley 
' Jessie L. Gaynor 

Descriptions and Illustrations 
By Dorothy Gaynor Blake 

Children generally are 
familiar with one or more 
of the favorite songs from 
the books, Songs of the „ 

Child World, by Alice C. s ; ng l e copy 
D. Riley and Jessie L. u cat j on cas [ 
Gaynor. As originally pub¬ 
lished, however, these are 
simply songs to be sung, 
no mention being made of 
rhythm presentations al¬ 
though they were^used^m 

the Woods, Leap Frog, and Chasmg the 
Fox. All of these pieces are supplementary to 
second grade work. Besides being unusually 
tuneful they abound in material for 
piano playing problems as playing triplets 
grace notes, repeated notes, left hand met 
dies, legato or staccato touch, crossing the 
hands, etc. Seldom are so many different 
phases of technic covered in a book of this 

Presser s Concert March Album 

For Orchestra 

With the recent release of our Little Clas¬ 
hes Orchestra Folio for beginning orchestras 
in the elementary schools, our editors now 
uuiurauiuu. ui .uni their attention to that large body of 

coming publication of these proficient players making up the Junior and 
two instruction books, it Senior High School Orchestras. Realizing the 
is hardly necessary that we constant need for marches of a superior type 
enter into a detailed de- for Commencement and Festival occasions, 
scription of them, as the as well as for programs of a serious nature, 
thousands of teachers who we take pleasure in announcing what we be- 
. have used Mr. Williams’ lieve to be the first book of its kmd—a col- 
k First Year at the Piano lection of concert and grand marches for 
($1.00) and Second Year orchestra. . . 

at the Piano ($1.00), know what to expect While the contents is made up exclusively 
in these “follow-up” books. of marches, there is a wide variety within 

However, as these books may be given to the book and works of modern European and 
any student beginning the third or fourth American composers give the selections a 

year of study (as the case may be) regard- wide appeal. From Europe is mdudrf such the composer 

less of whether or not his previous study has gems as March of the Little Lead Soldiers J Y children, 

been in Mr. Williams’ books, it might be by Pierne, Festival March from Troldhaugen for Tri Ve ,V ^evflonment of the 

well to mention that much of the material by Grieg, and Delibes stirring Marche from. , inculcate rhythmic feeling, Mrs. . . __ 

will consist of study pieces, selected, edited Sylvia in superior new arrangements, lo r y ■ n pcr being one of the first publication price, SO cents a copy, postpaid 

and arranged in progressive order by Mr. mention just a few from American com- this study in her kindergarten For the benefit of those who may not have 

Williams; pieces that cover every phase of posers, we find the Marcia Pomposa, Moon p . j Xhe composer’s daugh- read previous announcements, we give the 

' ..n the third Rocket, High School Grand March, Junior and p ^«w° da^- Blfke wlTa fortunate following brief description of the btSk. The 

member of these classes and has assembled contents will^ include piano pieces in grades 

There is still time this month to order a 
"opy at the special advance of pub- 
cash price, 25 cents, postpaid. 

; of body 

Evening Moods 

Album of Piano Solos 
The number of advance orders received 
for this volume is indeed most gratifying and 
our editors are making every' effort to com- 
plete the work as soon as possible. This is 
probably the last month during which it will 
be possible to order copies at the special pre- 

that should be covered in -, - 

and fourth grades. High Parade, and Ambassador. 

The educational works of this famous The instrumentation meets the full re- the ''ideas 4 to 6; numbers of a calm, meditatTve 6 ^ 

“teacher of teachers” are in great demand, qmrements of present day standards. The m C her mother in this connection, dignified music suitable for playing in churdk 

MTvSffSSK k.fSL 

in the hands of the average pupil. B flat Clarinet, 2nd B flat Clarinet, Bassoon, is included as a part of the book. eessfu albums of puuio i.iumo suitable for 

Here is an opportunity for all to make E flat Alto Saxophone, B flat Tenor Saxo- Teachers of kindergarten and pre-p.ano church and Sunday playing m the home but 
the acquaintance of both Third Year at the phone, 1st B flat Trumpet, 2nd B flat Trum- classes, and ambitious mothers who wish to these wereaUfor PWrsof hmded ab.hty. 
Piano and Fourth Year at the Piano, and at pet. Trombone (Bass Clef) or Baritone, begin musical training in the home .are Her, is a book that even accomplished 
imall outlay of cash. While these two Trombone (Treble Clef) or Baritone, Horns offered an opportunity to receive a first-from- pianists will enjoy. Of course, none of the 
■n preparation for publication in F, E flat Homs, Tuba, Drums, and Piano the-press copy of this vital work at the spe- selections has been included in previously 
■ P ■ ' ■ ” • > (Conductor’s Score). cial advance of publication cash price of 75 published albums of this kind. 

* ' ’ ’ * ’" ■' — L ~, postpaid. 

a very smi 

new books . . 

single copies may be ordered at the special 
pre-publication price, 50 cents each, postpaid. 

Educational Vocal Technique 

In Song and Speech 

By W. Warren Shaw in Collaboration With 
George L. Lindsay 
In Two Volumes — Vol. 2 
It would pay every one in any way in¬ 
terested in singing to be at least mildly curi¬ 
ous about this work for two reasons. Even 
the greatest artists never overlook any little 
detail which might improve their vocal art 
and therefore Reason No. 1 is that in the 
pages of this work any amateur or any pro¬ 
fessional singer is likely to find something 
of great value to him in his singing. Reason 
No. 2 is that regardless of the educational 
material, this work in its lessons presents a 
goodly number of excellent songs which 
alone would make the volume a bargain to 
any one who subscribes to it in advance of 
publication at the low cash price of 40 cents 
a copy postpaid. 

It is to be noted that the advance of 
publication offer applies only to Vol. 2, the 

As usual, a low advance of publicatic 
cash price of 20 cents for each part, piano 
accompaniment 40 cents, postpaid, offers spe¬ 
cial inducement to order copies now for de¬ 
livery when the collection is published. 

When Voices Are Changing 

Chorus Book for Boys 

There has been grati¬ 
fying progress on this 

book, but everything is • . . 

being carefully checked of su< : h excellent music is 
before the final closing " 
of pages and the hand¬ 
ing of plates to the 
lithographers. Those as¬ 
sisting in reviewing of 

Sabbath Day Solos 

High Voice Low Voice 

Although church singers represent a goodly , 

portion of the advance subscribers for this Jj 
book, there are many who never sing in • 
public that have ordered copies. For the ca j; 0 „ 

Advance of Publication Offers 
W ithdrawn 

of one; for the home singer, an album ^ 

valuable addition 

The contents of both the high and the low 
voice volume will be identical, but neither 
will contain songs of extreme range. None of 

a ° U "! copies may be had for examination from the 

the home music Publisher, or may be purchased through your 

music dealer. 

Birds of All Feathers by Mildred Adair is 
a musical playlet for juvenile performers and 
“ "specially adapted for use in supplying a 

details hav^been'asked these songs has been included in collections ‘°’ Z K,^\,"“dJ 

first volume having been issued m January rhythmic a j is a consider ation they must 
and delivered to the hundreds who subscribed not overlook . mile there wiu be ^ four _ 

for it in advance of publication. Many of • .. 

these already have written in splendid com¬ 
mendation on the work, quite a few report- 

satisfy themselves of thls kmd previously published by 
that the vocal ranges In advance of publication orders may be 
in all four parts are safe and possible for placed for copies of these albums at the spe- 
use by school boys of that age indicated by cia l cas h price, 30 cents each, postpaid, 
the title; they are being asked to consider 

Sacred Choruses for Men’s 

the appeal of the texts and their fittingness 
as to subjects about which boys like to sing, 
and of course, the matter of melodic and 

, , . „ .- have been called upon to complete the con- 

part numbers in this collection, it will be tents of this book, but most of the selections 
somewhat progressive to that point, some of are original choruses by the best composers. 

several This book goes further than the average col- 
-r--- c -choir. These 

piano pupils’ recital may be built. It provides 
splendid opportunities for artistic and color¬ 
ful staging and costuming. Every effort will 
be made to deliver copies of the book early 
this month. Price, 60 cents. 

Marchette Band Book, arranged by May- 
hew Lake, celebrated bandsman, is a colla¬ 
tion of 16 easy grade numbers for marching 
Some of the foremost arrangers of the day /-° r achc«l con « rt ban.<E- 

we Keen e»lle4 nnen - II strumentation will be published in 30 h 

the numbers being suitable for use _ _ 0 _ 

ways, so that the book really will provide lection of music for 

student into the natural use of his vocal Serial‘Thr^Hvane^'nf^,,^ i' 0Ur ' P ^ bers are of imthem proportions, not harmoni- 
equipment, and he learns many vocal truths L Pbl ?* lon t “4 zatl ° ns °f hymn tunes or short devotional 

■’ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ • - - P rlce a single copy is 25 cents, postpaid, numbers for religious services. 

Directors of men’s choirs and choruses. 

through the words provided to some of the 
attractive exercises. (Vol. 1 carries the price 
of $1.00 a copy.) 

e copy n 

Conductor’s Score (Piano). There are 
parts for 40 instruments. Prices: Each Book, 
30 cents; Conductor’s Score (Piano), 50 
cents. The Solo B-flat Comet book is now 
ready and the other parts will follow shortly. 

Six Octave and Chord Journeys by Irene 
Rodgers is a new addition to the “Music 
Mastery Series,” popular copyrighted piano 
. 11 selling at 

Piano Studies for the Grown-up 7 el1 as any others interested in securing music y ■ T , , Tk , 

n ‘ for these organizations, should take advan- 1,e J . un,fo .™> Pnce of 60 cents. These n 

c- • K,T 1 .]■ Beginner tage of tbis opportunity to obtain a mm- of studles wl11 he found especially valuable for 

. .. Singing Melodies The selection of material for this volume this fine collection while it may be ordered f T Ji" introducin 8 th .? stU(1 - v of ocUves and 

A Collection of Piano Solos with Words has been made to conform to the particular at the special advance of publication cash t"* 3 yOUnK puplls - 
There is nothing that is more pleasing to requirements and capabilities of the adult price, 30 cents, postpaid. * en famous Sotos for Clarinet. Trumpet 

the average youngster in the first or second hand. (? r Comet), Trombone and Alto Saxophone 

year of piano study than a piece with clever None but the most melodious and inter- Ten Tonal Tnloe ' v '" he published in 9 books—a Solo Book 

verses. Many teachers regularly assign these esting studies from writers such as Czerny, .. - _ uies f or each instrument, a Duct Part for each 

interest-creating pieces as the most reliable Heller and Burgmiiller have been used and Melodious^ Studies for the Development of mstr ument and a book containing the Piano 
practice stimulant obtainable. With juvenile in some instances transpositions to other keys Style in Piano Playing Accompaniment which can be used with any 

students the text aids in establishing a feel- have been made to bring out more clearly By Harold Locke , lke instruments. In the Duet Part the 

I ---- not play. The parts for 

custo mary to the various instruments are'interchangeable. 

and therefore Ten Famous Solos may be used 

prove a source of selection for fascinating tents also'include arrangements of technical students'of’ the' piano 
first recital material; in some of them the passages from piano compositions by Haydn, hunt among scores of so-iallid'et'.X^TJ- 

juvenile performer can both smg and play Mozart, Beethoven, Schumann, and Liszt. exercises etc for suitahfc m i • T’ j UdleS ’ _ __- 

the number: m others, one pupil can sing Each study has been carefully edited, with to special forms of technic TtU adapted as Clarinet and Alto Saxophone duets, 

and another pupil, or the teacher, play the practice helps and suggestions as an added often that “Study Onus TKi " appene . d ( l uile Cornet and Trombone duets, etc. Note the 

accompaniment ... , , featur ^' This book may be used by students problem, while “Study Opus Thlt” °" e “"^nts— Mighty ImV a Rose, By the Waters 

The Presser Catalog abounds m successful who have advanced well along in, or who tended for an entirely different n "“V' 1 ' °A Minnetonka, Recessional. I Love Life. The 
singing melodies and from these the most have finished, any first book in adult instruc- composers began to attach Inlet * U whei ] 9?™ Trm! ' l Heard the Voice of Jesus Say. 

appropriate have been chosen for inclusion turn. pertinent titles to such work rifev" 8 , A Vl n , eart h a Havfn > The Green Cathedral 

in this book. Orders may now be placed for A single copy may now be ordered, to be many a teacher a strain on th’e 1 SW/ Not A 9 am This H uy and Aw* 

copies at the special advance of publication delivered when published, at the special ad- selecting music for dudIIs memory m enmg. The price of the Solo Book for each 

cash price. 25 cents postpaid-copies to be vance of publication cash price of 40 cents. Especially attractive are the tltW. j , mstrument will be 50 cents; of the Duet Pari- 
delivered when the book is published. postpaid. Mr . Lekefor the studies t thU "T d .V 50 ° ents = of the Piano Accompaniment, 60 

Advertisement valuable cents. 



Once We Knew a Man . . . 

This man was a 
fine, intelligent busi¬ 
ness man able to 
afford more comforts 
of life than the aver¬ 
age individual. Yet, 
. because of the busy- 
' ness of his life he al¬ 
ways shaved himself, 
rather than spend 
time in a barber’s 
chair. When it came 
to shaving he had a 
preference for ^ ‘.W ^ ^ix lu a fine 
nn+lerv shop one day he saw a set or seven 

more aU made of the same kmd of high 
s t eel and with the handles each labeled 
fnf elv in the week. The set appealed to 
hi fancy and the idea of not using the same 
razor every day seemed very practical. Some 
ii.„ later when questioned about his set 
rii heeonfeid that although they 
all looked alike and were made of the same 
steel he had discovered a difference in them, 
S one in particular was his favorite and 
he used it most of the time. 

There are many worth while musical pub¬ 
lications, but some stand out as particular 
favorites and are used over and over again 
while others only get occasional attention. 
Those that are used over and over again 
have to have new editions printed, so if you 
want to find out what seem to be the favor¬ 
ite publications, just scan the publishers 
printing order each month. The following list 
gives a selected group from the past month s 
orders. Perhaps there are some which you 
have not met as yet. You may become ac¬ 
quainted with them easily through the liberal 
examination privileges offered by the Theo¬ 
dore Presser Co. 

Cat No. Titl e. 

6634 The Fife and Drum Brigade— 

Spaulding . 1 

8408 Rosebud. With Words— Rowe-. 1 .25 

12052 Old Mother Hubbard. With 

Words —Rogers . 1 -25 

15938 When Grandma Was a Little 

Girl —Spaulding . 1 .25 

19089 Nadine Waltz —Story . 1 .25 

23540 Little Swing Song —Preston... 1 % .35 

23336 A Fairy Song —Weddle . 1% .26 

26115 Heads Up! Forward March!— 

Copeland . 1% -& 5 

24827 Dialogue— Cram-m. .. 2 .30 

18868 The Chariot Race —Peery .2 .35 

25109 Jack and Jill —Ketterer . 2 .30 

26100 Spring Greeting Waltz— Cram- 

mond . 2 .25 

25084 Daffodils—IVoite . 2 .40 

80105 Scotch Doll —Mueller . 2 .40 

20008 March of the Wee Folk —Gaynor 2 .30 

20064 A Slumber Song— Mana-7.ucca. 2 .30 

18918 The Beautiful Swans —Rolfe... 2% .25 

12870 On to Triumph —Spooner . 3 .50 

23863 A Spanish Waltz —Moore . 3 .25 

24978 A Spanish Shawl —Bixby .3 .35 

26224 March of the Candy DoUs— Ren¬ 
ton . 3 .40 

9755 Installation March— Rockwell.. 3 .35 

26076 Swaying Daffodils^- Overlade... 3% -50 

26193 Clover Bloom —Keats .3% .40 

16096 Garden of Roses —Ritter .4 .40 


18268 Playful Kittens —Lawson .2 30.26 

12139 In the Attic. With Words— 

Spaulding . 2 .40 

26154 Oh! Susanna— Foster-Hodeon.. 2 .25 



7046 Hungary. Rapsodie Mignonne— 

KoeUing . 4 $1.20 

Etudes Miniatures (Music Mastery 

Series )—Terry .2-3 $0.60 

Celebrated Compositions by Famous Corn- 
Standard Compositions ' (Vol! 6 )—Mathew's '.75 


J270 Close to Thee (Med .)—Briggs . $0.50 

26211 Some One Had Prayed (High) — 

Peery . J50 

25186 Dear to the Heart of God—^ Van- 

,. OPf derpool .60 

12855 I Will Lift Up Mine Eyes (Med.) — 

Dichmont .50 


17523 N JW BUt Y °“ < Recitation) — M An 
sms? and Sunset* (Lowj—Spross * '.50 

30167 The Sweetest Flower That Blows 

(Low )—Hawley . .50 


Famous Songs (Alto )—Krehbiet . $1.60 

26121 Tiptoe Dance—Brown .2 $0.35 

APRIL, 1936 


5917 Morning Prelude —Read . 3% $0.40 

March ln A—Erb . 3% .60 

5 Medits 


21201 O Lamb of God, I Come —Blair . $ 

10608 God So Loved the World—Marfcs.... 

20523 The Angelus— Lieurance . 

20325 Ride On in Majesty— Baines . 

35131 Golden Harps Are Sounding— Browne 
35045 O Hear the Lambs A-Crying (6 
Parts)— Dett . 

35317 By the Rivers of Babylon— Vincent 

35318 We Praise Thee, O God— Spross.... 

35139 Christ, Our Passover— MacFarlane.. 


20230 In May —Wilson . 1 $0.06 

20190 The Dance of the Leaves— 

Wilson . 2 .12 

35084 The Nightingale's Song— Nevin 3 .15 

The Etude Historical Musical 
Portrait Series 

For the benefit of new readers unacquainted 
with all of the varied contents of The Etude, 
we would like to direct special attention to 
one feature so unusual as to warrant the 
interest of every student, teacher, and music 
lover, yet so unobtrusive that its real value 
may easily escape notice. We, of course, refer 
to The Etude Historical Musical Portrait 

Each month this unique feature presents 
pictures, accompanied by brief biographies, 
of 44 musicians, artists, composers, conduc¬ 
tors, directors, teachers, theorists, and patrons 
of the art. These are presented in alphabeti¬ 
cal order and we are endeavoring to include 
everyone deserving of recognition in the field 
of music, past and present. 

Many of these pictures are not available in 
any other form. They were obtained by us 
only after considerable research and, some¬ 
times, months of correspondence. This series 
makes invaluable scrap-book material for 
teachers and students of musical history and 
appreciation. As a reference work, however, 
the collection will be most valuable since it 
is our intention to continue the series until 
the entire history of music is covered. This 
then will be the most all-inclusive and up- 
to-date compilation of its kind. 

This month’s installment (see page 198) is 
the fifty-first in the series. Separate copies 
of all installments to date have been made 
for the convenience of new subscribers in 
obtaining a complete file, and those desiring 
extra copies of any one installment. These 
we are glad to supply at the nominal price 
of 5 cents, each. 

Watch Expiration Date on 
Wrapper of The Etude 

If, to the left of your name, printed on 
the wrapper, the date is April 1936, it means 
that the last paid for copy was mailed to 
you in the month of April. Please let. us have 
vour renewal promptly, which will avoid dis¬ 
appointment through interruption of service. 

Change of Address 

■When changing your address, notify ns at 
once, giving both old and new addresses. We 
should have at least four weeks in which to 
make corrections of addresses. Postmasters 
will not forward magazines, even if notified 
of change of address. If undeliverable at first 
address given, copy is destroyed, so be sure 
to advise us promptly when a change is made. 



Tells how to begin, the equipment needed, 
wh"; publicity to use, and gives a carefully 
graded list of materials. 

Theodore Pressor Co., 1712 Chestnut St., Phila., Pa. 

Q ommencement 

Appropriate, Inexpensive Items for Promotion 
or Graduation Awards to Music Students 


Theodore Presser Co. 

Everything in Music Publications 


Ellen’s Practice Account 

By Daisy Lee 

“Where are you going in such a rush, 
Ellen?” cried Jane as she came out the 
school door and saw her chum running 
down the front steps. 

“To the store to buy a little account 
book,” Ellen answered. “Don’t you want 
to come along?” 

“But what do you want an account book 
for?” asked Jane. 

“Oh, I thought I would start a Music 
Practice Account, and find out just how 
many hours I really am practicing in a 
year’s time. Why don’t you start one, 

After looking over the books they chose 
two small, narrow volumes with strong 
covers which would wear well. Then they 
hurried to Ellen’s home and soon marked 
in the dates for the twelve months to come. 
They reserved a page for each month; 
placing the dates down the left hand side 
of the page, and leaving the space on the 
other side for the daily minutes or hours 

“Now, on the last evening of every 
month let’s get together and add up our 
time,” suggested Ellen, “and see who has 
done the most work on her music.” 

“All right,” agreed Jane. 

“Sometimes,” Ellen added, “I get lazy 
and skip a few minutes. Yesterday I 
happened to figure up how much time those 
minutes would amount to in a year. And 
would you believe it, they came to almost 
thirty hours!” 

“That is a lot of time to waste!” replied 
Jane in surprise. 

“Far too much!” Ellen declared, “when 
you are as anxious as I am to become a 
good pianist. I decided right then,” she 
continued, “that I’d keep a record of my 
work, and every day I skipped a minute 
I would make it up before the week was 

“I’ll do the same,” answered Jane, “and 
I am sure we will both become better 
players if we practice our full time this 
coming year!” 

Studio Auction 

By Riva Henry 

Prepare for this lively game by cutting 
out many small cardboard circles, and on 
each one draw a single note or rest, using 
many varieties of time values. 

Give every player an equal number of 
cards, and then conduct a make-believe 
auction sale, selling the various articles in 
the studio, the players bidding on them and 
paying for them with their note-cards. 
Each whole note or whole rest being worth 
four counts, the amounts are added accord¬ 

The player who buys the most with his 
cards wins. 

How many MASTERS can you find? 
Put on your thinking-cap and see; 
And just recall their names again. 

(In every stanza one will be.) 

For FUGUES and PRELUDES, here’s a 

No other bears so great a name; 

Two centuries and more have passed 
Through which has grown his deathless 


“HARK, HARK, the LARK,” and 

He wrote when he went out to dine; 
He only lived to thirty-one, 

But left us many songs divine. 


His OPERAS number by the score; 
And ORATORIOS as well; 

In music lovers’ hearts, his great 
“MESSIAH” will forever dwell. 


SONATA-FORM he made by plan; 

To SYMPHONIES and such, gave grace; 
We think of the “SURPRISE,” he gave 
With smiles a-twinkling o’er his face. 

He played, composed, when very young; 
His OPERAS are quite bright and gay, 
And “DON GIOVANNI” is the name 
Of one that you will hear some day. 


This one a player hoped to be, 

But, foiled by fate, his music gives 
Romantic dreams. In TRAUMEREI 


With harmonies so richly rare 
WALTZES teem; 

And sweetest melodies abound, 
Piano-like, as few could dream. 


A man whose heart was always brave, 
Although his tunes he could not hear; 

And heard them with his inner ear. 

With SYMPHONIES and other thing 
All m a mould so deeply cast 
That understanding them is joy. 

Of three great B’s he comes the last 


So many master’s names you’ve found. 
And can you play from every one 
Some rare, sweet gem? If not, decide 
To learn them, ere the day is done. 


1, Bach; 2, Handel; 3, Haydn; 4, Mozart; 
5, Beethoven; 6. Schubert; 7, Schumann; 
8, Chopin; 9, Brahms. 

Practicing With Imagination 

By Annette M. Lingelbach 

To make your daily practice more in¬ 
teresting, try making different patterns 
with your music. One day design, cut, 
and sew a dress from the material of your 
new melody. Perfect legato in the right 
hand fashions the neck-line; accuracy of 
notes decides the style and color of the 
collar; clear rhythm sews on the lace; and 
accented phrasing irons the collar before 
you make it part of the dress. 

The next day create the waist to your 
dress through the accurate playing of the 
left hand. The following day's work on 
the hands together will complete the skirt, 
while memorizing your melody will put in 
all those little extra touches of lacy cuffs, 
buttons, tucks, and hems. 

Reviewing this melody from time to 
time will mean that you are either chang¬ 
ing the dress, as to collar, cuffs, waist, or 
length, or that you are adding new acces¬ 
sories to your outfit, such as a hat, gloves, 
necklace, or scarf. Melodies, like dresses, 
must often be brought up to date, with 
such modernizing touches as finer phras¬ 
ing, more accurate memorizing, better 
rhythm, or smoother fingering. Do not 
discard your old melodies, as you do your 
old clothes, but bring them out for display 
as regularly as you eat, for old melodies, 
like old friends, become more dear with 
the passing of time. 

For scale-practice, build a house of so 
many rooms. Each time you play a scale 
perfectly, you add a room. When the 
house is finished, put in the furniture. 
Each old scale reviewed, or new scale 
practiced accurately, brings in a piece of 
furniture. To variate your technic-drill, 
build the walls of arpeggios, install furni¬ 
ture of scales, and rent it to different 
people of tonic chords. 

Put your imagination to work, by build¬ 
ing musical ships, towns, people, and 
articles. Practicing with imagination helps 
you review thoroughly, starts you accu¬ 
rately on your new work, makes your hour 
of practice pass like a minute, and devel¬ 
ops your imagination, thus making you a 
finer musician to interpret the musical 
moods of others. 


JUNIOR ETUDE —(Continued) 


Building Foundations JUNIOR ETUDE CONTEST 

By Helen Oliphant Bates 

“Good morning, children,” said Miss 
Winston, as the class arrived for their 
lesson in music appreciation. “Would you 
like to go over and watch the men laying 
the foundation for my new studio?” 

“Sure. We want to go,” answered the 

C ' “The first thing the workmen did,” said 
Miss Winston, “was to dig trenches about 
four feet deep all around the outside outline 
of the studio, and two trenches across the 
inside. Next they put sand, rock, and iron 
rods in the bottom of the trenches.” 

“Why do they need iron rods?” asked 

“Because they are necessary to make the 
foundation firm,” answered Miss Winston. 
“Anything that weakens the foundation, 
weakens the whole building.” 

“Look at that funny little wagon!” said 
George. “What is it?” 

“That wagon,” replied Miss Winston, 
“contains ready mixed concrete. Watch 
them pour it down the trenches, and work 
it into shape.” 

"Will they be ready to start the studio 
then?” asked James. 

Prize Winners for January 
Endless Chain Puzzles 

Marjorif. Helen Ullstrom (Age 15), 
Nebraska, Class A. 

Dorothy Marie Carr (Age 12), Kan¬ 
sas, Class B. 

Patsy Baxter (Age 9), British Colum¬ 
bia, Qass C. 

Honorable Mention for 

January Puzzle: 

Margaret Binder, Ruth Beck, Robs Jarrett, 
Lillian M. Hyatt, Laura Valentine, Edna 
Earle Campbell, Dorothy Virginia Kyle, Lucile 
Lynch, Edytlie Grady, Dollie Lethaby, Jean 
Marie Shaefer, Jane K. Fuller, Lee Howard, 
Geraldine Taylor, Cyrus Alley, Dorothy Rey¬ 
nolds, Rebecca Ostcrhout, Dorothy Clarke. 
Bernard Lafond, Lois L. Sommer, Sarah Lou- 
venia Byrd, Marian Lendved, Donald Sper- 
beck, Llewellyn Faust, Dana Jean Catterson, 
Florence Brody, Darhl Ballard. Helen L, Neer, 
Eileen Nagatomo. Rita B. Aiken, Lavonne 
Williams, Betty Barkwell. 

Just Published! 


35 Cents Per Copy 


RCA Bldg. (Radio City) New York, N. Y. 

“No,” returned Miss Winston, “they will 
build wooden forms to fit inside the 
trenches, and fill them with concrete. After 
the concrete dries they will remove the 
wooden forms, and leave the concrete wall 
standing on top of a layer of concrete. 
This foundation will cost a great deal.” 

“What a lot of money goes under the 
ground!” said Walter. 

“Yes,” agreed Miss Winston. “But with¬ 
out a good foundation, my studio would not 
be worth much. And without a good mu¬ 
sical foundation, you can never expect to 
be good musicians. You are laying the 
foundation of your musical training now. 
You must be just as careful of your foun¬ 
dations, as I am of the foundation to my 
studio. You must build a strong founda¬ 
tion, during your first three years of music 
study, by using a concrete mixture of slow, 
careful practice and plenty of scales and 
arpeggios, and you must pay close attention 
to all the directions and instructions that 
your teacher gives you. Then you will be 
rewarded by a house of musicianship that 
will stand any test, or weather any storm. 
Labor has sure reward.” 

Letter Box 

it music, urn! so forth, ami c 
Ding to give ns a prize for the 
are semling you a picture of o 
From your friend. 

ir has a chance to 
c call “The Music 
s with clippings 

N. B.—The picture of The Music Box has 
not arrived, Dorothy. Did you forget to 
send it? 

The Junior Etude will award three 
pretty prizes each month for the best and 
neatest original stories or essays, and for 
answers to puzzles. 

Any boy or girl under sixteen years of 
age may compete, whether a subscriber or 
not, and whether a member of a Junior 
Club or not. Class A, fourteen to sixteen 
years of age; Class B, eleven to under four¬ 
teen; Class C, under eleven years of age. 

Subject for story or essay this month, 
“Me and My Music.” Must contain not over 
one hundred and fifty words. 

All contributions must bear name, age 
and address of sender, written clearly, and 
be received at the Junior Etude Office, 1712 
Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa., before 


(Prize Winner) 

One afternoon as I was practicing, I 
was looking out the window at the snow 
flakes falling. I heard a queer, beautiful 
melody. A bird was singing. 

1 went outside to see what kind of a bird 
could make such beautiful melody but it 
was not in sight. Soon I saw it. It had dark 
blue wings and a red and black face. Soon 
it looked over to where I was standing and 
I thought it would fly away, but instead, it 
started singing its beautiful melody again, 
as though it were springtime. I called my 
mother to hear the beautiful melody. I 
asked her what kind of a bird it was but she 
had never seen it before. So I have never 
found out what bird it was who sang the 
beautiful melody, but it is still making 
lovely music in my memory. 

Doris Fox (Age 10), Class C, 

Question Box 

Will you please explain the difference be¬ 
tween a band and an orchestra. Somebody 
in school said an orchestra sits and a band 
stands, but I don’t think this is right. 

A symphony orchestra includes brass instru¬ 
ments (French horns, trumpets, trombones, 
tuba) : wood-wind instruments (flutes, pic¬ 
colo, oboes, English horn, clarinets, bas¬ 
soons) ; percussion instruments (drums of 
various kinds, cymbals, castenets, triangle, 
etc ) • and, most important of all. string in¬ 
struments (violins, violas. v‘-’- 

basses, and frequently a *■" 

A band includes all of these except the 
strings. There are no string instruments of 
any kind in a band, and there are many more 
varieties of brasses and wood-winds. 

A band playing a concert is seated. A 
band inarching down the street is standing. 
An orchestra does not march, and is seated 
because it is almost impossible to play violon¬ 
cellos and harps standing, but an orchestra 
will rise to play national anthems when nec- 

t time you hear a band or an or- 
™ if nil the radio, listen carefully 
■11 whether there are any 

--— — ny small combinations of 

instruments, used for dancing, including ban¬ 
jos, mandolins, and so on. These are usually 
called orchestras, too. but are not real sym¬ 
phony orchestras : and in these the violinists 

imetimes play si 


the eighteenth of April, 1936. Be prompt! 

Put your name, age and class in which 
you are entering on upper left hand corner 
of paper and your address on upper right 
hand corner. If your contribution takes * 
more than one sheet of paper do this on 
each sheet. 

Do not use typewriters and do not have 
any one copy your work for you. 

When schools or clubs compete, please 
have a preliminary contest and send in only' 
the five best papers. 

Competitors who do not comply with all 
of the above conditions will not be con¬ 

Names of prize winners and their con¬ 
tributions will appear in the issue for July. 

(Prize Winner) 

-- ---—f single tones so 

arranged to express a musical thought. It also 
is the leading part of a musical composition. 
It is not absolutely essential that this succes¬ 
sion of sounds be pleasing. Melody only con¬ 
siders the various tones of a single part or 
voice in relation to every preceding or suc¬ 
ceeding tone. Harmony considers these tones 
also but when they ure sounded simul¬ 

Usually a melody of high pitch shows de¬ 
termination, desire, longing and striving; 
while one of low pitch portrays sadness and 

The character of a musical phrase is de¬ 
termined by the combination of three vital, 
fundamental elements ; namely, melody, har¬ 
mony and rhythm, each one affecting the 
other. Melody is the only one capable of being 
’a melody should be 

satisfactory hi itsi 
considered by “ 


K (Age 1- 


(Prize Winner) 

Melody (o me is the next thing to religion. 

Music is the art of combining sounds in a 
manner to please the ear. What is more nerve- 
“ — ' i with all bass in- 

or a person singing 

Melody expresses stories of tone-poems. You 
can imitate the wind, the rain, thunder, 
trickling water. I heard the Slumber Song by 
Schumann and imagined the mother rocking 
her baby, but at first the children were mak¬ 
ing so much racket the baby 

Answers to Endless Chain 
Puzzle in January: 











Honorable Mention for 
January Essays: 

Josephine Fischer, Phyllis Morrell, Mildr 
Parkinson, Kathryn E. Dambach, Sill 

Hoogasian, Jean Marie Shaefer, -- 

Mary Macker, M- ' " * ' ” * 

mizian, Mary B 
dred Ring, Fra. . 

•'unite. Catherine MeCa.... __ 

Mabel C. Dunn, Marcia Hamilton, Catherine 
Buit, Mary Alice Hoste, Bernard Cohen, 
Patricia Klein, Mary Kathryn Ihle, James J. 

APRIL, 1936 



Working With "Dad' 

By Bertha M. Huston 

* Next Month 


A really delightful travel by Grace O’Brien 

hasTrown into a majSr annuli event of the'musical 


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Musical Books 

Ludwig Eblert, the eminent Ger- 
st, composer, critic and 
, once said to a group of 

ing bis pupil into a likeness of him¬ 
self, but in showing him the path to 

Theodore • 

• Presser Co. 




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